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238 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Galilean moon _______ is larger than Mercury.
Ganymede
Io is the only moon in the solar system having active _______.
volcanoes
Saturn’s rings exist because they lie within Saturn’s _______.
rhode limit
The composition of Titan’s atmosphere is 90 percent _______.
nitrogen
There may be large amounts of liquid _______ under the frozen surface of Europa.
water
The Uranian moon that shows the greatest amount of geological activity and disruption over time is _______.
miranda
What is unusual about Jupiter’s moon Io?
Io is the most volcanic object in the solar system. It has no surface craters
What property of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, makes it of particular interest to astronomers?
Atmosphere is twice that of earth
What is unique about Miranda? Give a possible explanation for this uniqueness.
wide range of terrain
Seen from Earth, Saturn’s rings sometimes appear broad and bright but at other times seem to disappear. Why?
Saturn has a tilt of 27 degrees
How was Pluto discovered?
irregularities in orbits of uranus and neptune suggested a ninth planet
How was the mass of Pluto determined?
In the 1980s, eclipses of Charon and Pluto obscend
The largest moon in the solar system is _____.
a. Mercury
b. Io
c. Earth's Moon
d. Titan
e. Ganymede
e. Ganymede
The four largest moons of Jupiter were first discovered by which of the following scientists?
a. Isaac Newton
b. Johannes Kepler
c. William Herschel
d. Galileo Galilei
e. Tycho Brahe
d. Galileo Galilei
3. The rings of Saturn are most likely characterized by which of the following statements?
a. They are the result of an early collision of Saturn with Jupiter.
b. They are relatively young compared to the age of Saturn and the solar system.
c. They are a continuous solid sheet of reflective ice.
d. They are several hundred kilometers thick.
e. They are made of hydrogen and helium gas.
b. They are relatively young compared to the age of Saturn and the solar system.
4. A typical particle in Saturns rings is more than 100 m across. a. True b. False
b. false
Although Saturns ring system is tens of thousands of kilometers wide, it is only a few tens of meters thick. a. True b. False
a. true
Io has a noticeable lack of impact craters on its surface. a. True b. False
a. true
Pluto is larger than Earths Moon. a. True b. False
b. false
Pluto’s moon, Charon, is very small compared with Pluto. a. True b. False
b. false
Saturn is unique among the planets in having a ring system. a. True b. False
b. false
The surface of Europa is completely covered by water ice. a. True b. False
a. true
Titan’s atmosphere is denser than Earths. a. True b. False
a. true
Titan’s surface is obscured by thick cloud layers. a. True b. False
a. true
The part of the Sun we see is called the _______.
photosphere
Below the solar surface, in order of increasing depth, lie the _______ zone, the _______ zone, and the _______.
chromosphere

transition

cornoa
The _______ seen on the surface of the Sun is evidence of convective cells.
grandulation
The Sun appears to have a well-defined edge because the thickness of the _______ is only 0.1 percent of the solar radius.
photosynthesis
_______ is the most abundant element in the Sun.
hydrogen
_______ is the second most abundant element in the Sun.
helium
The two most abundant elements in the Sun make up about _______ percent of its composition.
99.9
The _______ is formed as the hot outer regions of the corona expand into interplanetary space.
solar wind
Sunspots appear dark because they are _______ than the surrounding gas of the photosphere.
cooler
The sunspot cycle is _______ years long; the solar cycle is _______ as long.
11

twice
A _______ is a violent explosive event in a solar active region.
flare
The solar neutrino problem is the fact that astronomers observe too _______ neutrinos coming from the Sun.
few
How massive is the Sun, compared with Earth?
300,000 times mass of earth
How hot is the solar surface? The solar core?
solar surface= 5800km, interior about 15 million
What evidence do we have for solar convection?
solar gandulation
What is the solar wind?
gas escapes from cornea beacuse so hot, rus of particles called solar wind
What is the cause of sunspots, flares, and prominences?
magnetic fields
What fuels the Sun’s enormous energy output?
the sun's energy output is fueled by fusion of hudrogen into helium
What is the period of rotation of the Sun?
a. 29.8 hours at the equator, 13.6 hours near its poles
b. 15.5 hours at the equator, 32.6 days near its poles
c. 14.3 days both at the equator and near its poles
d. 16.7 days at the equator, 43.5 days near its poles
e. 25.1 days at the equator, 36 days near its poles
e. 25.1 days at the equator, 36 days near its poles
The Maunder minimum of sunspots occured during the _____ century.
a. twelfth b. nineteenth c. seventeenth d. fifteenth
c. seventeenth
Convection involves cool gas rising to the solar surface and hot gas sinking into the interior. a. True b. False
b. false
Neutrinos are neutrons traveling close to the speed of light. a. True b. False
b. False
Nuclear fusion releases energy because the total mass of the nuclei involved increases.
a. True b. False
b. False
Prominences are violent nuclear explosions on the surface of the Sun. a. True b. False
b. False
Sunspots are regions of intense magnetic fields. a. True b. False
a. True
The average density of the Sun is significantly greater than the density of Earth.
a. True b. False
b. false
The nuclear reactions that power the Sun create energy in the form of gamma rays.
a. True b. False
a. True
The Suns diameter is about 100 times that of Earth. a. True b. False
a. True
The Suns mass is comparable to the mass of Jupiter. a. True b. False
b. False
The temperature of the solar corona decreases with increasing radius. a.True b. False
b. False
Parallax measurements of the distances to the stars nearest Earth use _______ as a baseline.
earth's orbit
The smallest stars normally plotted on the H-R diagram are _______.
white dwarfs
The smallest main-sequence stars are _______ (larger/smaller) than the planet Jupiter.
smaller
The Sun has a spectral type of _______.
G2
The H-R diagram is a plot of _______ on the horizontal scale versus _______ on the vertical scale.
temperature (color)

luminosity (magnitude)
. The band of stars extending from the top left of the H-R diagram to its bottom right is known as the _______.
main sequence
How is stellar parallax used to measure the distances to stars?
parallex= apparent motion

amount of star motion change=relative background of stars
What is a parsec? Compare it to the astronomical unit.
1 parsec=206,265 AU
parsec= paraletcial angele of one arcsec magituge
What is the difference between absolute and apparent magnitude?
absolute- instric brightness
apparent- outside brightness
How do astronomers measure star temperatures?
by using B and V filters
What information is needed to plot a star on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram?
aboslute magnitude spectral tupe
What is the main sequence? What basic property of a star determines where it lies on the main sequence?
narrow S-shaped curve fusion of hydrogen and helium
How are distances determined using spectroscopic parallax?
observation of star of H-R diagram without distance know
Which stars are most common in the Milky Way Galaxy? Why don’t we see many of them in H-R diagrams?
M-type stars are intrinsically faint
If a high-mass star starts off with much more fuel than a low-mass star, why doesn’t the high-mass star live longer?
lifetime of star is dependent on fuel
In general, is it possible to determine the age of an individual star simply by noting its position on an H-R diagram?
hot, bright massive have short lifetimes

different range

fainter stars have long lifetimes
A star of apparent magnitude five looks brighter than one of apparent magnitude two.
a. True b. False
b. false
Differences among stellar spectra are mainly due to differences in star composition.
a. True b. False
b. false
One parsec is a little more than 200,000 A.U. a. True b. False
a. true
Red dwarfs lie in the lower left part of the H-R diagram. a. True b. False
b. false
Red giants are very bright because they are extremely hot. a. True b. False
b. false
Star A and star B have the same luminosity, but star B is twice as distant as star A. Therefore, star A appears four times brighter than star B. a. True b. False
b. false
Star A appears brighter than star B, as seen from Earth. Therefore, star A must be closer to Earth than star B. a. True b. False
a. true
The brightest stars visible in the night sky are all found in the upper part of the H-R diagram. a. True b. False
a. true
There are no other stars within 1 pc of the Sun. a. True b. False
a. true
The peak of an object’s emitted radiation occurs at a frequency or wavelength determined by the object’s _______.
temperature
Two identical objects have temperatures of 1000 K and 1200 K. It is observed that one of the objects emits roughly twice as much radiation as the other. Which one is it? _______.
1200k object
Blackbody radiation is an example of a _______ spectrum.
continuous
An absorption spectrum is produced when a _______ gas lies in front of a continuous source.
cool
Protons carry a _______ charge; electrons carry a _______ charge.
positive

negative
When moving to a higher energy level in an atom, an electron _______ a photon of a specific energy.
absorbs
When moving to a lower energy level in an atom, an electron _______ a photon of a specific energy.
emits
The "specific energy" referred to in the preceding two questions is exactly equal to the energy _______ between the two energy levels the electron moves.
difference
A blackbody emits all its radiation at a single wavelength or frequency. a. True b. False
b. false
An absorption spectrum appears as a continuous spectrum interrupted by a series of dark lines. a. True b. False
a. true
Electromagnetic waves cannot travel through empty space. a. True b. False
b. false
Electromagnetic waves cannot travel through empty space. a. True b. False
b. false
Emission spectra are characterized by narrow, bright lines of different colors.
a. True b. False
a. true
In a vacuum, electromagnetic waves all travel at the same speed, the speed of light.
a. True b. False
a. true
Light, radio, ultraviolet, and gamma rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation.
a. True b. False
a. true
Sound is a familiar form of electromagnetic wave. a. True b. False
b. false
The wavelengths of the emission lines produced by an element are different from the wavelengths of the absorption lines produced by the same element. a. True b. False
b. False
Helium was first discovered:
a. in Germany
b. in the Sun
c. in space
d. in Brazil
b. in the Sun
The ___ something moves away from you, the ___ its light.
a. slower; bluer
b. faster; bluer
c. slower; redder
d. faster; redder
d. faster; redder
When looking at astronomical objects, we see ___ lines due to molecules in Earth's atmosphere.
a. scattered
b. parallel
c. emission
d. absorption
d. absorption
As they are heated from low to high temperature, solid objects will appear to glow consecutively in sequence in which of the following ranges of color?

a. white, red, then yellow
b. red, yellow, then green
c. red, reddish yellow, then white
d. blue, green, yellow, then red
e. red, yellow, green, blue, purple, then white
c. red, reddish yellow, then white
What effect will occur when we receive light from a source that is receding from us at high speed?

a. blackbody radiation
b. redshift
c. Stefan's law
d. absorption
e. blueshift
b. redshift
What will happen to the absorption and/or emission spectral lines of an object moving away from Earth at high speed?

a. They will be shifted toward the red end of the spectrum.
b. They will be shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum.
c. They will be made more intense.
d. They will be made less intense.
e. They will be unaffected.
a. They will be shifted toward the red end of the spectrum.
The planet _______ is blue-green and virtually featureless.
average density
The planet _______ is dark blue, with white clouds and visible storm systems.
Uranus
The overall bluish coloration of Uranus and Neptune is caused by the gas _______.
methane
The main constituents of Jupiter and Saturn are _______ and _______.
hydrogen

helium
Jupiter’s clouds consist of a series of light-colored _______ and darker _______.
zones

belts
Saturn’s cloud layers are thicker than those of Jupiter because of Saturn’s weaker _______.
gravity
Uranus’s rotation axis is almost _______ to the ecliptic plane.
parallel
Jupiter emits about _______ times more radiation than it receives from the Sun.
two
Jupiter’s magnetic field is generated by its rapid rotation and by the element _______, which becomes metallic in the interior of the planet.
hydrogen
Saturn’s excess energy emission is caused by _______.
helium percipitation
Why did astronomers suspect an eighth planet beyond Uranus?
orbit different than predicted
Why have the jovian planets retained most of their original atmospheres?
lower temperature

higher gravity
What is differential rotation, and what evidence do we have that it occurs on Jupiter?
look it up bitch
Why does Saturn have a less varied appearance than Jupiter?
when equalatorial regions rotate faster than polar
. What is the Great Red Spot? What is known about the source of its energy?
redish spot in Jupiter seen for past 100 years. comes from the atmopsphere flows
What is unusual about the rotation of Uranus?
the tilt of 98 degress
What is responsible for Jupiter’s enormous magnetic field?
conduction material in bject
How are the interiors of Uranus and Neptune thought to differ from those of Jupiter and Saturn?
no liquid metallic hydrogen in interiors
Jupiter's strong magnetic field traps particles that spiral into its poles, interacting with its atmosphere to produce Northern and Southern Lights, called aurora. All planets with strong magnetic fields and atmospheres have auroras. Thus, the following planets in our solar system experience auroras:
a. Earth
b. Jupiter
c. Saturn
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
The following Jovian planets have central cores larger than the Earth
a. Saturn
b. Neptune
c. Jupiter
d. Uranus
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Uranus' rotational axis was likely flipped over by:
a. gravitational interactions with the Sun
b. a collision with a large planetoid
c. chemical changes in its outer atmosphere
d. the formation of its moons
b. a collision with a large planetoid
Which planets' magnetic fields are created by a rotating metallic hydrogen ocean rather than a rotating ammonia/water ocean or a rotating molten iron core?
a. Jupiter and Saturn
b. Saturn and Uranus
c. Jupiter and Neptune
d. Uranus and Neptune
a. Jupiter and Saturn
Both Uranus and Neptune have layers of metallic hydrogen surrounding their central cores. a. True b. False
b. False
In general, a storm system in Jupiters atmosphere is much longer-lived than a storm system in Earths atmosphere. a. True b. False
a. True
Jupiter has only one large storm system.
a. True
b. False
b. False
Jupiters magnetic field is much stronger than Earths. a. True b. False
a. True
Jupiters solid surface lies just below the cloud layers visible from Earth.
a. True b. False
b. False
Like that of Jupiter, the rotation of Saturn is rapid and shows differential rotation.
a. True b. False
a. True
There is no evidence to suggest that either Jupiter or Saturn has a rocky core.
a. True b. False
b. False
There is no evidence to suggest that either Uranus or Neptune has a rocky core.
a. True b. False
b. False
Uranus was discovered by Galileo. a. True b. False
b. false
What is differntial rotation?
when the rotation rate is not constant from one location to another
what is the great red spot?
a series of ever-changing atmosphereic cloud bangs arranged parallel to the equator and a oval atmospheric blob
what are white ovals?
seen in many images of Jupiter. They are apparently circulating storm systems
what are brown ovals?
a hole in the overlying clouds that allows us to look down into the lower atmosphere.
What is the Great Dark Spot?
Similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, except it is on Neptune
What is the Cassini Division?
the dark gap about two thirds of the wya out from the inner edge of Saturn
What is A ring?
lies outside of the Cassini Division on Saturn
What are the B and C rings?
The rings of Saturn inbetween the Cassini Division and the planet.
What is Encke gap?
found in the outer part of the A ring
What is the Roche limiti?
the critical distance inside the which the moon is destroyed.
what are ringlets?
Voyager discovered in 1979 that each of Saturn's main rings are acutally composed of tens of thousands of these
What is the F ring?
the strangest ring of all, the faint narrowest ring of Saturn
what are shepherd satellites?
two small moons the influence the complex structure of the F-ring
what is the D ring?
inside the inner edge of the C ring, streching down almost to Saturn's top clouds
what is the pholtosphere?
the part of the sun that emits the radiation
what is the chromosphere?
just above the photosphere is the sun's lower atmophsere
what is the transition zone?
where the temperatre tises dramatically.
what is the corona?
10,000 om stretching far beyond is a thin, hot upper atmosphere
what is a solar wind?
what is created when the cornoa flows at greater distances
what the convection zone?
a region where the material of the sun is in constant convective motion
what is the ratiation zone?
where solar energy is transported tward the surface by radiation rather than by convection
what is the central core?
roughly 200,000 km in radius, is the site of powerful nuclear fusion reactions that generate the Sun' enorous energy output
what is a solar constant?
is approx. 1400 watts per square meter
what is luminosity?
the solar constant x the total surface area of imgainary sphere
what is the standard solar model?
the combining of all available observations with theoretical insight into solar physics
what is hydrostatic equilibrium
pressure's outward push exacly counteracts gravity's inward pull
what is helioseismology?
study of solar surface patterns
what are supergranulation?
a flow pattern quite simiar to grandulation except that supergrandulation ceells are some 30000 km across.
what are sunspots?
typically 10000 km across
what is polarity?
indicates which way its magnetic field is directed
what is a sunspot cycle?
the sunspot cycle last about 22 years. after the 11th year the sunspot is wiped out
what is the solar cycle?
a 22 year process in whihc the polarity of sunspots changes
what is the corona?
10,000 om stretching far beyond is a thin, hot upper atmosphere
what is a solar wind?
what is created when the cornoa flows at greater distances
what the convection zone?
a region where the material of the sun is in constant convective motion
what is the ratiation zone?
where solar energy is transported tward the surface by radiation rather than by convection
what is the central core?
roughly 200,000 km in radius, is the site of powerful nuclear fusion reactions that generate the Sun' enorous energy output
what is a solar constant?
is approx. 1400 watts per square meter
what is luminosity?
the solar constant x the total surface area of imgainary sphere
what is the standard solar model?
the combining of all available observations with theoretical insight into solar physics
what is hydrostatic equilibrium
pressure's outward push exacly counteracts gravity's inward pull
what is helioseismology?
study of solar surface patterns
what are supergranulation?
a flow pattern quite simiar to grandulation except that supergrandulation ceells are some 30000 km across.
what are sunspots?
typically 10000 km across
what is polarity?
indicates which way its magnetic field is directed
what is a sunspot cycle?
the sunspot cycle last about 22 years. after the 11th year the sunspot is wiped out
what is the solar cycle?
a 22 year process in whihc the polarity of sunspots changes
what is apparent brightness?
the amount of energy striking unit of area of some light-sensitive surface or device, such as the human eye
what is proper motion?
as seen from earth and corrected for parallax
what is magnitude scale?
scale dates back to second century BC when the atstromoner Hipparchus ranked the naked eye stars into six groups
what is apparent magnitudes?
the numbers in Hipparchus's ranking system
what is absolute magnitude?
apparent magnitude when viewed from distance of 10 pc
what are te spectral classes?
O B A F G K M

(oh be a fine girl, kiss me!)
what is radius-luminsoity-temperature relasionship?
demonstrates knowlege of a star's luminosity and temperature can yield an estimate of its radius
whata are giants?
stars having radii between 10 and 100 times that of the Sun
what is a red giant?
any 4000k object redish in color
what are supergiants?
even larger stars, raning up to 1000 solar radii in size
what is a red supergiant?
prime example is Betelgeuse
what is dwarf?
refers to any star radius comparable to or smalelr than the radius of the sun
what is a white dwarf?
because any 24,000 km object grows bluish wihte
what is an H-R diagram?
plots luminosity vs. temperature
what is a main sequnece?
goes from top left to bottom right in H-R diagram
what are blue giants?
at the top end of the main sequence the stare are large, hot and very luminous
what are blue supergiants?
the larger blue giants
what are red dwarfs?
on the other end of the spectrum oppistie of blue giants lies these lighter stars
what is the red-giant region?
the upper corner of the H-R diagram where these stars are found
what is spetrospectic parallax?
the process of using stellar spectra to infer distances
what are binary-star systems?
consti of two stars in orbit aout their common center of mass, held together by their mutal gravitational attraction
what are visual binaries?
widely seperated members bright eough to be observed and monitored seperaly
what are spectroscopic binaires?
too distant from us to be resolved into sepeate starstj
what are eclipising binaries?
the orbital palne of the pair of stars is almost edge-on to our line of sight.
what is a light curve?
astronomers can derive detailed information not only about the stars obrits band masses u alos the radii
what is visible light?
the particular type of electromagnetic radiation to which the human eye happens to be sensitive
what is radio, infrared, ultra violet and gamma rays all have in common?
they are all forms of visible light
what is a wave period?
the number of seconds needed for the wave to repeat itself at some point in space
what is a wavelength?
the number of meters needed for the wave to repeat itself at any given momnet in time?
what is amplitude?
maximum departure of the wave from the undistrubed state--air, say, or a flat pond surface, is called amplitude
what is diffraction?
when light waves tend to bend around corners
what is interference?
when the crests and troughs of waves coming from differenct forces can reinforce or partly cancel each other
what is an electron?
an electrically charged particle
what is electromegnetism?
the two stages of magnetic fields and electricity moving together, creating this one entitiy
what is the speed of lght?
299,792.458 km/sec
what is the electromagnetic spectrum?
all the spectral regions, including the visible, that make up the spectrum
what is opacity?
extent to which radiation is blocked by the material through which it is passing--in most cases, teh air
what is a blackbody curve?
describes the distrubituion that reemitted radiation
what is Wien's law?
wavelength of peak emission (jesus fish) 1/temperature
what is a spectroscope?
radiation can be analyzed with this insturment
what is a continuous spectra?>
light from lightbulbs
what is emission lines?
narrow slices of continous spectrum
what is an emission spectrum
the particular pattern of spectral emission lines
what is spectroscopy?
stud of wthe ways in which matter emits and absorbs radiation
what is Kirchhoff's laws?
the laws o gas and how things are abosorbed
what are atoms?
micro building plots
what is the Bohr model?
provides explaniation of hydrogen's observed spectral lines
what is a ground state?
represents "normal" condition of the electron as it orbits the nucleus
what are phtons?
requires that light must be absorbed and emitted int he form of little packets . these are those pakkets
what are nuetrons?
another kind of elemertary particle having a mass slightly large r than that of a prton but carrying no electrical cahrge)
When did the oldest star in the universe exist?
0.5 billion years ago
What do they call the most exotic object in the solar system?
Miranda
What is the approximate size of Uranus dust particles?
desk size
What is a Quaoar called?
a Kuiper Belt object
Cold nuclear fussion has been discretited by the scientific community.

true or false?
true
A large # of sunspots is associated with what?
hotter temperatures
Considering the nearest 100 stars, the sun is brighter than approx...?
90% of most stars
Light has a wave nature and particle nature.

true or false?
true!