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116 Cards in this Set

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WHO WAS THE FIRST PERSON TO SUGGEST THE SUN WAS AT TH CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE?
COPERNICUS
WHOSE SCIENTIFIC METHOD DID NOT INCLUDE EXPERIMENTING - ONLY APPLYING LOGIC AND REASONING?
ARISTOTLE
WHO BELIEVED THE SUN MOVED AROUND THE EARTH BASED ON HIS OBSERVATION THAT THE SUN CAME UP IN THE EAST AND SET IN THE WEST?
ARITOTLE
WHO CONCLUDED THE EARTH MOVED AROUND THE SUN, BUT WAS AFRAID TO SAY IT OUT OF FEAR OF THE CHURCH?
COPERNICUS
WHO WAS ABLE TO CHART THE ORBITAL SPEED OF EACH PLANET AROUND THE SUN?
KEPLER
WHOSE CHARTS OF THE HEAVENS DID KEPLER STUDY?
TYCHO BRAHE
WHO EXPLAINED GRAVITY?
NEWTON
WHO FIRST ATTEMPTED TO CONVINCE THE CHURCH THAT THE EARTH MOVED AROUND THE SUN?
GALILEO
WHAT COMMON MAN IS BURIED AMONG KINGS BECAUSE HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE WERE SO IMPORTANT?
NEWTON
BASED ON OBSERVATIONS WHO CONCLUDED THAT HEAVIER OBJECTS FALL FASTER TO THE GROUND THAN LIGHTER OBJECTS?
ARISTOTLE
WHO FIRST CHALLENGED THE IDEA THAT HEAVIER OBJECTS FALL FASTER THAN LIGHTER ONES? HE EXPERIMENTED WITH CANNONBALLS AND A VERY BIG INCLINED PLANE.
GALILEO
TRACE HOW MAN'S VIEW OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM FROM BEING EARTH CENTERED TO BEING SUN CENTERED
ARISTOTLE (384-322BC)
COPERNICUS (1473-1543)
KEPLER (1571-1630)
GALILEO (1564-1642)
NEWTON (16432-1727)
WHAT IS A CENTRIPETAL FORCE?
INWARD FORCE THAT KEEPS SOMETHING MOVING IN A CIRCULAR PATH
WHAT IS A SATELLITE?
ANYTHING THAT MOVES AROUND ANOTHER BODY (THE EARTH IS BECAUSE IT GOES AROUND THE SUN, THE MOON IS...)
WHAT FORCE MAKES THE MOON 'WANT' TO MOVE IN A STRAIGHT LINE INSTEAD OF ORBITING?
INERTIA
TRACE HOW MAN'S VIEW OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM FROM BEING EARTH CENTERED TO BEING SUN CENTERED
ARISTOTLE (384-322BC)
COPERNICUS (1473-1543)
KEPLER (1571-1630)
GALILEO (1564-1642)
NEWTON (16432-1727)
HOW DO THE FORCES OF GRAVITY AND INERTIA EXPLAIN THE ELLIPTICAL PATTERN OF THE ORBITS OF THE PLANETS AROUND THE SUN?
THE MOON WOULD MOVE IN A STRIGHT LINE BECAUSE OF INERTIA, BUT THE EARTH'S GRAVITY PULLS IT TOWARDS THE EARTH, GIVING IT A CIRCULAR ORBIT
WHAT IS A CENTRIPETAL FORCE?
INWARD FORCE THAT KEEPS SOMETHING MOVING IN A CIRCULAR PATH
WHAT IS A SATELLITE?
ANYTHING THAT MOVES AROUND ANOTHER BODY (THE EARTH IS BECAUSE IT GOES AROUND THE SUN, THE MOON IS...)
WHAT FORCE MAKES THE MOON 'WANT' TO MOVE IN A STRAIGHT LINE INSTEAD OF ORBITING?
INERTIA
WHAT FORCE CAUSES THE MOON'S ORBIT AROUND THE SUN TO BE ELLIPTICAL INSTEAD OF MOVING IN A STRAIGHT LINE?
THE EARTH'S GRAVITY PULLING IT TOWARDS THE EARTH
WHAT IS AN ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE? GIVE AN EXAMPLE
A SATELLITE MADE ON EARTH, LIKE THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
WHAT IS THE CONDITION IN WHICH THE FORCE OF GRAVITY SEEMS TO DISAPPEAR BECAUSE A SPACECRAFT AND ITS CONTENTS ARE FREE FALLING AT THE SAME RATE?
MICROGRAVITY
WHAT IS MICROGRAVITY?
THE CONDITION IN WHICH THE FORCE OF GRAVITY SEEMS TO DISAPPEAR BECAUSE A SPACECRAFT AND ITS CONTENTS ARE FREE FALLING AT THE SAME RATE
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF MICROGRAVITY
A SCALE ON A RAPIDLY FALLING ELEVATOR WILL REGISTER YOUR WEIGHT AS ZERO
WHAT IS THE ONLY WAY YOU COULD EXPERIENCE TRUE WEIGHTLESSNESS?
TO BE IN A ZERO GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT
ARE YOU TRULY WEIGHTLESS IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT?
NO!
COMPARE THE TERMS REVOLUTION AND ROTATION, THEN CONTRAST THEM
BOTH TERMS CAN BE USED TO DESCRIBE PLANETARY MOVEMENT
ROTATION IS WHAT THE EARTH DOES AROUND ITS AXIS. ROTATION DICTATES THE LENGTH OF THE DIURNAL CYCLE. REVOLUTION IS WHAT THE EARTH DOES AROUND THE SUN. "THE EARTH ROTATES ON ITS AXIS AS IT REVOLVES AROUND THE SUN
HOW MANY DAYS DOES IT TAKE THE EARTH TO REVOLVE AROUND THE SUN
365.25
HOW MANY DOES DOES IT TAKE HTHE EARTH TO ROTATE ON IT AXIS?
ONE
NAME THE 4 SEASONS IN ORDER, STARTING WITH WINTER
WINTER, SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN
WHAT CAUSES THE EARTH'S SEASONS - DIFFERENCES IN DISTANCE FROM THE SUN OR TILT OF THE EARTH ON ITS AXIS?
TILT OF THE EARTH ON ITS AXIS
WHAT IS THE TILT OF THE EARTH ON ITS AXIS?
23.45 DEG
DURING WHICH SEASON DO THE SUN'S RAYS HIT THE EARTH AT THE MOST DIRECT ANGLE?
SUMMMER
DURING WHICH SEASON ARE THE DAYS THE SHORTEST?
WINTER
NAMES THE SHORTEST DAY OF THE YEAR
WINTER SOLSTICE
NAME THE LONGEST DAY OF THE YEAR
SUMMER SOLSTICE
IS THE WINTER SOLSTICE THE BEGINNING OR END OF WINTER?
BEGINNING
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE DAYS THAT ARE EQUAL IN LENGTH
EQUINOX
HOW MANY EQUINOXES ARE THERE AND WHAT ARE THE CALLED?
2 - VERNAL (SPRING) AND AUTUMNAL
NAMES THE SHORTEST DAY OF THE YEAR
WINTER SOLSTICE
NAME THE LONGEST DAY OF THE YEAR
SUMMER SOLSTICE
IS THE WINTER SOLSTICE THE BEGINNING OR END OF WINTER?
BEGINNING
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE DAYS THAT ARE EQUAL IN LENGTH
EQUINOX
HOW MANY EQUINOXES ARE THERE AND WHAT ARE THE CALLED?
2 - VERNAL (SPRING) AND AUTUMNAL
LOOKING AT THE SUN FROM THE FRAME OF REFERENCE OF THE EARTH, WHAT WOULD THE DECLINATION OF THE SUN BE?
HOW HIGH OR HOW LOW THE SUN IS IN THE SKY
WHAT IS THE TERM FOR THE DIVISION OF THE CELESTIAL HEMISPHERE?
CELESTIAL EQUATOR
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN CELESTIAL HEMISPHERES
TO HELP US IDENTIFY THE LOCATION OF STARS
WHAT DAY IS THE WINTER SOLSTICE, AND WHERE IS THE SUN ON THE HORIZON ON THIS DAY
12/21 OR 12/22 - THE LOWEST POINT
WHAT DAY IS THE SUMMER SOLSTICE, AND WHERE IS THE SUN ON THE HORIZON ON THIS DAY
6/21 - THE HIGHEST POINT
WHEN IS THE VERNAL EQUINOX IN 2010
MARCH 20
WHEN IS THE AUTUMNAL EQUINOX IN 2010
9/22
HOW DO THE TERMS SOLSTICE AND EQUINOX RELATE TO THE PERIOD OF REVOLUTION OF THE EARTH AROUND THE SUN?
ON JUNE 21, THE SUNS RAYS DIRECTLY STRIKE THE TROPIC OF CANCER (23.5 DEG NORTH) - SO THE SUN IS HIGHEST IN THE SKY AND THE NORTHERN PART OF THE PLANET GETS MORE SOALR RADIATION
WHY CAUSES THE EARTH TO EXPERIENCE 4 SEASONS
THE TILT ON ITS AXIS - WHEN HALF OF THE EARTH EXPERIENCES SUMMER IT IS RECEIVING MORE DIRECT RAYS FROM THE SUN
WHEN DOES THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE EXPERIENCE SUMMER AND HOW IS THE EARTH TILTED DURING THIS TIME
JUNE TO SEPT - THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IS TILTED TOWARDS THE SUN
WHEN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE IS EXPERIENCING SUMMER FROM DEC-MARCH, HOW IS THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE TILTED IN RELATION TO THE SUN?
AWAY
WHEN ARE THE RAYS OF THE SUN DIRECTLY OVER THE EQUATOR?
DURING SPRING AND FALL, SO BOTH HEMISPHERES HAVE MODERATE WEATHER
ARE THERE SEASONS AROUND THE EQUATOR?
THE SUN IS NEVER VERY LOW IN THE SKY BETWEEN THE TROPIC OF CANCER AND THE TROPIC OF CAPRICORN, SO IT IS WARM AND HUMID YEAR ROUND
HOW DOES THE MOON SHINE?
THE SUN'S RAYS HIT IT AND REFLECT OFF OF IT
HOW DOES THE SUN SHINE?
THE SUN AND STARS UNDERGO NUCLEAR FUSION, IN WHICH HYDROGEN ATOMS FUSE TO FORM HELIUM. THIS REACTION GIVES OFF ENERGY IN THE FORM OF HEAT, LIGHT, AND OTHER RADIATION
DESCRIBE THE PHASES OF THE MOON
DRAW THEM OUT AND COMPARE TO THE STUDY GUIDE
WHY DO WE NOT SEE THE NEW MOON?
THE HALF THAT IS LIT IS FACING AWAY FROM US
WITH THE FULL MOON, HOW MUCH OF THE MOON'S SURFACE IS REFLECTING THE SUN'S LIGHT?
HALF
WHY ARE THE FIRST QUARTER AND LAST QUARTER MOONS CALLED QUARTER MOONS AND NOT HALF MOONS?
HALF OF THE MOON IS ILLUMINATED, BUT WE SEE HALF OF THE HALF, WHICH IS A QUARTER
WHAT IS THE CREE INDIAN LEGEND?
DESCRIBE IT
DIAGRAM THE ALIGNMENT OF THE SUN, MOON, AND EARTH DURING A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE AND A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE AND EXPLAIN WHY THE TWO ALIGNMENT CAUSE EACH TYPE OF ECLIPSE
DRAW AND EXPLAIN - CHECK YOUR WORK
WHAT ARE TIDES
PERIODIC RISING AND FALLING OF LARGE BODIES OF WATER
WHAT CAUSES TIDES
THE GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN THE EARTH AND THE MOON
WHY DO THE OCEANS BULGE IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOON?
GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION OF THE MOON
WHY DO THE OCEANS ALSO BULGE ON THE SIDE OF THE EARTH AWAY FROM THE MOON?
THE EARTH IS ALSO PULLED TOWARDS THE MOON, LEAVIG WATER "BEHIND"
DRAW OUT THE ALIGNMENT OF THE EARTH, SUN, AND MOON THAT CAUSES SPRING TIDES
DRAW AND CHECK
DESCRIBE SPRING TIDES
ESPECIALLY STRONG TIDES
DESCRIBE NEAP TIDES
WEAK TIDES OCCUR WHEN SUN AND MOON ARE PERPENDICULAR TO EACH OTHER
SKETCH THE RELATION OF THE SUN, EARTH, AND MOON DURING NEAP TIDES
DRAW AND CHECK
DURING WHICH PHASES OF THE MOON DO SPRING TIDES OCCUR
FULL MOON AND NEW MOON
DURING WHICH PHASES OF THE MOON DO NEAP TIDES OCCUR?
QUARTER MOONS
EXPLAIN WHY THE MOON GOES THRU PHASES AS IT REVOLVES AROUND THE EARTH
DRAW IT OUT AND CHECK
WHAT MAKES UP A COMET
ROCK
WHERE DO MOST COMETS COME FROM?
BEYOND THE ORBIT OF NEPTUNE - THE KUIPER BELT
SKETCH AND LABEL A DIAGRM OF A COMET
CHECK YOUR WORK
WHAT MAKES UP THE NUCLEUS OF A COMET
MASS OF ICE AND FROZEN GAS
WHAT IS THE COMA OF A COMET
a cloud of gas that surrounds the nucleus
how is the tail of a comet formed?
parts of the nucleus start to evaporate
in what position does a comet always orbit the sun
with its tail pointing away from the sun
what is a notable cmet that makes a complete orbit of the sun every 75-76years?
Halley's Comet
What is the only comet that is visible to the naked eye from earth?
Halley's Comet
What is the name of the comet that collided with the planet Jupiter in 1994?
Shoemaker-Levy 9
what is the shape of the orbit of a comet?
elliptical
What is Kepler's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion?
a planet moves faster through orbit when it gets closer to the sun
how does the appearance of a comet change as it gets closer to the sun in its orbit?
its tail gets much longer
fill in the blanks - the tail of a comet always points ______ from the sun, so after it passes the sun it travels ______ first
away and tail
asteroids
rocky remains from the formation of the solar system
what are the rocky remains from the formation of the solar system called?
asteroids
what is the asteroid belt?
millions of asteroids ranging in size from a few hundred feet to a few hundred miles in diameter
where is the asteroid belt located?
between Mars and Jupiter
explain the difference between meteors, meteoroids, and meteorites?
check your explanation
what is the absolute magnitude of a star?
a measure of the amount of light a star gives off
what is the apparent magnitude of a star?
a measure of the amount of light received by the earth
what color are hot stars?
blue and white
what color is a relatively cool star?
orange or red
what color are stars that have the same temp as the sun?
yellow
how do astronomers study the composition of the stars?
they study the spectra of a star through a telescope
explain why there are dark lines in the spectra of the stars
light radiated from a star passes thru its own atmosphere. as it does, elements in the atmosphere absorb some of the light. the wavelengths of visible light that is absorbed appear as dark lines
describe the stages of stellar evolution
look at harvard website if you can't do this
what determines how a star will evolve through its life cycle
the mass of a star at the beginning of its life
what stage is our sun in its life cycle?
middle aged
what evidence is there that the sun is middle aged?
it has used up half of its hydrogen fuel and converted it to helium
use the H-R diagram - what is the hottest, dimmest star?
white dwarf
which stars are very hot and very bright?
blue giants
use the H-R diagram, how would you describe the temperature and brightness of our sun?
average temp, average brightness
what is the large shadow that moves across the earth's surface during an eclipse
the penumbra
what is the small shadow that moves across the earth's surface during an eclipse?
the umbra
in March 2006 there was an eclipse that was not seen in the US. Why?
because the unbar only passed over africa and asia
what causes the differences between the 3 types of solar eclipses?
the alignment and distances between the earth, sun, and moon
why don't you have to wear eye protection to view a lunar eclipse?
the earth blocks most of the sun's rays making its less dangerous (?)
for a solar eclipse, how are the earth moon and sun aligned?
moon is between sun and earth