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132 Cards in this Set

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Newton
Improved upon Kepler's Third Law

Constant depends on masses of objects in orbit

Two objects in orbit are orbiting their common center of mass
Tidal Effect
Two high, two low as Earth rotates

Earth being pulled away from water on opposite side, giving appearance of high tide.
Moon accounts for about _____ of the ocean's tides
2/3
Sun accounts for about _____ of the ocean's tides.
1/3
Spring Tides
Unusually high tides

Occurs with new moon and full moon.
Spring Tides occur with _____ moon and _____ moon.
New and Full
Neap Tide
Not as extreme as spring tides; not unusually high or low

Occurs with Quarter Moons
Neap Tides occur with _____ moons.
Quarter
Speed of Light
186,000 mi/sec

c = constant for speed of light
c comes from Greek word ______ meaning ______
celeritas

fast
Blue: _____ wavelength

Red: _______ wavelength
shortest

longest
Electromagnetic Spectrum (shortest to longest)
Gamma Rays
X-Rays
UV Rays
Visible Light
Infrared Reds (heat)
Microwaves
Radio Waves
Kinetic Energy:
Velocity squared
Absolute Zero
an object has no energy of motion (kinetic energy)
Emmission Line Spectrum
light being given off by an atom
Absorbtion Line Spectrum
light being absorbed by an atom
Doppler Effect
wavelength has shifted
Doppler Effect:

Blueshifted
obejct moving toward us, shorter wavelength
Doppler Effect:

Redshifted
object moving away; longer wavelength
Telescopes
Primarily light amplifiers

Allow us to see dim objects by gathering lots of light

Needed to see faint objects
______ of main mirror or lens is the primary measure of a telescope
Diameter
The amount of light you gather is proportional to the _____ of the main mirror or lens
area

A= d squared
Refracting Telescope
bending light

large lens
Chromatic Aberration
cannot bring all colors to the same focal point due to different wavelengths; problem with refracting telescopes
Reflector
large mirror

must get shape of curve exactly right (paraboloid)

Can be bigger than lenses

No chromatic aberration
Spherical Aberration
distortion of an image formed by a telescope due to differing focal lengths of the optical system
Newtonian Focus
bounces light out to the side
Bigger mirror equals
more light gathering ability

ability to see much fainter objects
Diffraction
makes images fuzzy

Larger opening: less diffraction = more detail
Resolving Power
Larger opening: less diffraction = more detail

Diameter bigger --> Resolving Power gets better
Turbulence in the _______ generally is the main limiting factor for resolving power.
atmosphere

about 1 arc sec
Go to high altitudes to get _____ atmosphere. Build optical telescopes on _______.
above

mountains
Adaptive Optics
Can see what kind of distortion has taken place - adjust telescope accordingly by moving mirror.
________ is the least important thing a telescope does.
Magnification
How do astronomers store the images made my telescopes?
Make a sketch
Photography
CCD Cameras (digital)
Photometer
Spectrograph
Photometer
the measurement of brightness (light intensity)
Spectrograph
breaks light up into its various wavelengths
We always see the same side of the moon because...
the moon revolves once around the earth in the same time it rotates once on its axis (tidal coupling)
The moon is only 2% of the Earth's _______.
volume
Dark areas:
Basalt (typical volcanic rock)

mare, maria

3.1 - 3.8 billion years old

Fewer craters
Light areas:
Anorthosite

"Lunar Highlands"

4-4.5 billion years old

Heavily Cratered
The moons ______ is only 11%

Earth's is 39%
albedo
Albedo
The fraction of sunlight that a planet, asteroid, or satellite reflects.
Moon Landings
First: Apollo 11
July 20, 1969

Neil Armstrong

Last: December 1972
All of the moons surface is ______ ________.
heavily cratered

More on highlands than in seas
Formation of the lunar crust:
Need to form the moon first

Original crust is now lunar highlands

The original lunar crust was heavily bombarded by planetesimals
Original moon crust is now ________
lunar highlands
The original lunar crust was heavily bombarded by ________
Planetesimals
The maria were formed by ___________ at the end of the accretion process.
large collisions
accretion
the gradual accumulation of matter in one location, especially due to the action of gravity
A large collision knocked a piece of the Earth's ______ off to form the moon.
mantle
The Earth's rotation is being slowed by ______
the tides
The moon is moving _____ from the Earth by 3.8 cm per year.
away
Mercury rotates ______ times as it goes around the sun once on its _____ orbit.
1.5

elliptical
Mercury's volume is only about _____ of Earth's.
5.5%
Mercury is the _______ planet, ______ to the sun
innermost

closest
Radar showed Mercury rotates ______ times for every _____ revolutions.
three

two
Mercury's type of tidal locking is called a
resonance
Long days on Mercury lead to ______
extremes of temperature

Light side: 500 K
Dark side: 100 K
Mercury has no ____ and no ____ to regulate temperature.
atmosphere

water
The surface of Mercury is _______, thus it must be very _____
heavily cratered

old
Mercury's albedo is about
10%
The _____ of Mercury is very different from the moon.

It has a much larger ____.
interior


core
Mercury ____ have a magnetic field.
does

0.5% of Earth's field.

Means part of the core is liquid.
The cooling of Mercury's iron core has produced _____ on the surface
scarps
Scarps
very large cliffs

about 1.5 miles high
Terrestrial Planets
small, close to sun, warm

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

Few moons

Density = 5000 kg/cubic meter = iron core
Jovian Planets
Large, far from sun, cool

Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune

Density: about 1500 kg/cubic meter = helium and hydrogen

Lots of moons
Density of water
1000 kg per cubic meter
Density of rocks
3000 kg/cubic meter
How do planets hold on to hydrogen and helium?
Temperature: Atoms and molecules have kinetic energy.

Energy is shared equally among the atoms and molecules.
Kinetic Energy =
1/2 mv^2
Heavy molecules (Oxygen) move _____ thean light molecules (hydrogen, helium)
slower
If the speed of a molecule is too big, a planet's gravity won't be strong enough to _______.
keep them bound.
Warmer planets have ______ moving molecules.
faster
Larger planets have _____ gravity.
Stronger
Asteroids
small, rocky bodies

similar in position to terrestrial planets
Kuiper Belt
40 AU from sun

Short period comets originate in the Belt.

Small frozen water/methane ice balls
Short Period Comets originate in the _________
Kuiper Belt

small frozen water/methane ice balls
______ surfaces in the solar system typically have _____ craters.
Solid

Many
More craters means ____ surface.

Few craters means _____ surface.
old


young
The larger and warmer planets were _____ after their formation than presently
hotter
Smaller planets have cooled off ____ than larger ones
more
Active planets
have hot centers

volcanoes, plate tectonics, etc.
Moving electric charges create __________
Magnetic fields

Many planets have them.

Need molten material inside the planet.
______ and ______ do not have magnetic fields.
Venus

Mars
Mercury (though small) must have some energy it in because it ________.
has a magnetic field.
Formation of the Solar System:
Abundance of elements (Hydrogen and Helium are most common)

Entire System formed together.
Accretion
little planets bump together, insides of planets heat up and this is how planets are formed.
Craters
the craters on the moon and terrestrial planets are from little planets bumping them.
Earth doesnt have craters because it is ____ and the _____ changes.
active

surface
isotope
special forms of elements.

they change from one isotope to an isotope of another element
Atomic Nucleus
Protons: positive
Neutrons: neutral
Isotopes change in amount of _____ but stays same element
neutrons
If the _____ is charged, the element is still the same.
proton
_________ has 238 protons and neutrons.

Decays into lead.
Uranium
Half-life
4.5 billion years for uranium to turn to lead
4.5 billion years for _____ to turn to _____
uranium

lead
The solar system was formed from a _______ called a solar nebula.
gas cloud

The gas fell inward and heated up. The sun was created and took up 99.99% of the mass of the solar system.
Solar nebula
gas cloud
The sun takes up ______ of the mass of the solar system.
99.99%
Heavy elements have ____ melting temperatures and could condense at _____ temps.
high

high
On _____ of cloud it's cooler and the lighter elements can condense.
outside
Jovian Planets
many moon

ALL Jovian Planets have rings

Many far away objects can be considered moons and rings. We don't know exact numbers.
All Jovian Planets have ____.
rings
Comparitive Planetology
what planets look like compared to earth.
Earth's surface is warmer than what it should be because of the ________. Otherwise, Earth would be ice.
greenhouse effect
Some _____ radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere.
infrared
Largest absorbers of infrared radiation:
water vapor
carbon dioxide
methane
Temperature on earth is shifted because some _______ is trapped.
infrared radiation
The effect of _______ is changing the balance of Earth.
human activity
Interior of the Earth:
density is not uniform (3000-15000 kg/cubic meter)
Earth's Mantle
Basalts (not molten, not solid)can be formed and molded; like the texture of tar
Earth's core
solid center
liquid outer edge
combination of iron and nickel (15000 kg/cubic meter)
Earth's Crust
Least dense part (3000 kg/cubic meter)

3 miles deep under continents.
10 miles deep under ocean.
Very thin.
_______ tell us about the interior of Earth.
Earthquakes
P Waves
Pressure waves/Primary waves

Undergo Refraction (direction changes when going through a different part of the earth); waves bounce
S waves
Sheer Waves/Secondary Waves
O Zone
great absorber of ultra violet light
CFC's
Chlorophlorocarbons

Once used in fridges and aerosol cans.

These chemicals deplete the ozone layer and changes chemical balance.

Created a hole in the ozone layer, especially near South Pole.

20-30 yr damage takes 100 yrs to regenerate.

S. America and Australia recieve a lot of UV light as a result.
S waves
Move side to side

Cannot go through liquid

The movement of S waves show that the core has an outer liquid part.
Liquid Outer Core
carries electric current

Rolling motion in liquid being heated from interior, out.
Magnetic Field
Particles get trapped in the field. The areas that these particles are in are called Van Allen Radiation Belts
Van Allen Radiation Belts
two doughtnut-shaped regions around the Earth where many charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field
Auroras
light radiated by atoms and ions in the Earth's upper atmosphere, mostly in the polar regions
Magnetosphere
the region around a planet occupied by its magnetic field
Convection
heat within Earth material in mantle is moving in a rolling motion
Crust
Rigid and Solid

Broken up into plates
Plates can:
slide past each other
slide under each other
spread apart
Transform Fault
San Andreas Fault

Slide past motion
Deep Ocean Trench
created by plates sliding under another

Andes Mountains and Japan are deep sea trencehes from plates sliding under each other
Mid Ocean Ridges
long mountain ranges right at the top there is a deep (Rift Valley)

Magma comes up from mantle into the rift and out

Few inches per year

Ocean floors - basalts - mantle.