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34 Cards in this Set

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What did Galileo prove and how?
Porved that the planets orbit the Sun by observing the phases of venus
What else did galileo discover? (2) Why imp?
1- discoverd 4 moon orbiting Jupter (imp b/c showed that E not most imp body), 2- discovered moon has craters and mountains (imp b/c church believed universe was perfect and smooth, and he proved them wrong)
What did Kepler dishover about orbits?
That they are ellipses, not circles
What are keplers 3 laws?
1- orbits are ellipses, 2- area swept out by planet in a certain time, 3- a^3= t^2 (a= avg dist to Sun in AU, t= time in yrs for 1 orbit)
Why is the Earth still hot inside?
1- early impacts generated heat, and as it's well-insulated heat doesn't escape much, 2- plate tectonics keeps mantle warm
What are the plates in Earth?
they are the cracked crust, which include ocean floor and continents
What is the result of the fast that the plates aren't fixed?
continental drift
Why has the Earth's surface features changed?
earthquaces, volcanoes, erosion
How have old crusts destroyed?
by faults/earthquakes, volcanes, mountain range uplifts
How is our atmosphere composed of?
Nitrogen (77%), Oxygen (21%)
How are rocks formed in 2 billion different from contemp rocks?
they formed w/o oxygen
What added oxygen to Earth's atmosphere?
plant photosynthesis
What is the density of the moon?
3.3 kg/l
What are some features of moon?
cool, so no current geological activity, no atmosphere, no erosion, used to have magnetism, features we see are "old"
What are two obvious surface features of moon?
Maria (dark, smooth regions), Highlands (bright, rugged areas w/ overlapping craters)
What is the cause of lunar features?
a period of heavy bombardment of debris
Why can we see still see the impact scars of moon?
b/c w/o erosion and geological activity, the surfaces are old
What is the order of the sun, earth, and moon in a solar eclipse? (L to R) When can this occur?
earth, moon, sun; New Moon
What is the order of the sun, earth, and moon in a lunar eclipse? (L to R) When can this occur?
moon, eath, sun; Full Moon
During lunar eclipse, where would the eclipse be visible?
anywhere where ists night and could normally see the full moon
During solar eclipse where would a total eclipse by visible?
under the umbra in one particular place
How many hours of day/night in Vernal Equinox?
12/12
How many hours of day/night in Autumnal Equinox?
12/12
How many hours of day/night in Summer Solstice?
15/9
How many hours of day/night in Winter Solstice?
9/15
When is moonrise and moonset in new moon?
6 am, 6pm
When is moonrise and moonset in waxing cresent moon?
9am, 9pm
When is moonrise and moonset in first quarter moon?
12pm, 12am
When is moonrise and moonset in waxing gibbous moon?
3pm, 3am
When is moonrise and moonset in full moon?
6pm, 6am
When is moonrise and moonset in waning gibbous moon?
9pm, 9am
When is moonrise and moonset in last quarter moon?
12am, 12pm
When is moonrise and moonset in waning crescent moon?
3am, 3pm
How off is day 1 from day 2 in time of rise/set?
50 minutes diff/ day