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19 Cards in this Set

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An attempt to explain what we observe in nature
Science
A valid scientific explanation must be...
testable and consistent
Single assertion or conjecture that must be tested by making oservations or performing experiments
Hypothesis
System of rules and principles that can be applied in a variety of circumstances
Theory
Theory that has been refined, tested, and confirmed so often that scientists have confidence in it
Natural law
Carefully devised mental conception of how something works
Scientific model
What characterizes as a scientific hypothesis?
A. It is based on the ideas of the smartest people
B. The more ancient the wisdom, the better the explanation
C. It is based on observations
D. It is tested through prediction and experiments
E. Both C and D
E. Both C and D
What is the difference between the word <i>theory</i> as used in everyday speech, and the word <i>theory</i> as used in science?
A. Theory, in common speech, is something uncertain (It's just a theory")
B. A <i>scientific theory</i> has b een thoroughly tested
C. A <i>scientific theory</i> must not conflict with other accepted theories
D. A <i>scientific theory</i> must be discarded if it fails to explain what is observed in <i>any</i> experiment
E. All of the above
E. All of the above.
Subjective measure of brightness, depends on physiology of eye and psychology of perception
Apparent visual magnitude
More accurate measure of brightness, measure of the light energy from a star that hits 1 square meter in 1 second
Intensity
great circle on celestial sphere that passes through an observer's zenith and the north (or south) celestial pole
Meridian
What makes Polaris a special star?
A. It is the brightest star in the sky
B. It is currently near the axis about which the sky turns
C. It's azimuth (direction) is always due north
D. it is always directly overhead, no matter where you are
E. Both B and C
E. Both B and C
If Orion rises at 8:00 PM tonight, what time will it rise tomorrow night?
7:56. A solar day exceeds a sidereal day by 4 minutes, so objects in the sky appear to rise about 4 minutes earlier each night
Why do we have seasons on Earth?
1. The Earth is closer to the Sun in summer
2. The tilt of the Earth makes sunlight strike the surface more directly in the summer
3. Neither of the above.
2. The tilt of the Earth makes sunlight strike the surface more directly in the summer
"equal night," points where ecliptic intersects celestial equator
Equinox
"sun stand," point on celestial sphere where the Sun raches its greatest distance north or south of the celestial equator
Solstice
What causes the seasons?
A. in summer, theh whole Earth is closer to the Sun
B. In summer, the tilt of the Earth's axis makes the part of the Earth we are on closer to the Sun.
C. in summer, the sun is up for more hours
D. In summer, the sun climbs higher in the sky, so its rays hit the ground mroe directly
E. Both C and D
E. Both C and D
Which way do outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto) generally appear to move along the Ecliptic?
Eastward
When can Mercury and Venus, the inner planets, be seen?
The inner planets, Mercury and Venus, can never be seen at large angular distance from the sun and appear only as <i>morning</i> or <i>evening stars</i>.