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72 Cards in this Set

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Eclipse
shadow of something on another object
total eclipse
completely in umbra
partial eclipse
partly in umbra/penumbra
penumbra
not clearly visible
umbra
total blockage
lunar eclipse
earth directly between moon and sun
solar eclipse
moon directly between earth and sun [new moon]
annular
ring of sun behind moon
the ecliptic
sun's path through the sky
moon's path
deviates 5 degrees from epliptic
earth's crust
down 100 km
12 major plates
earth's mantle
goes about 1/2 way to center
solid but fluid
earth's core
liquid for about 2200 km
solid for about 1200 km
earth's inner core
solid from intense pressure
radio active fission keeps earth hot
earth's atmosphere overview
extends 100 km above earth
80% nitrogen
20% oxygen
earth's atmopshere progression
troposphere
stratosphere
ozone layer
mesosphere
thermosphere/ionosphere
troposphere
up to 11 - 20 km
[shrinks when far from sun
weather
heated by earth
stratosphere
up to 45 km
change in temperature
[cool --> warm]
ozone layer
up to 55 km
absorbs UV light
warmest region
thermosphere/ionosphere
heat up because absorbs most stuff
why are we warm on earth?
more molecules hitting us create heat
moon compared to earth
1/4 size; 1/100 mass; 1/6 gravity
moon's maria
17% maria
- volcanic lava flows
- material much like earth's volcano
- younger than craters
moon's highlands
83% surface
mountains
craters
moon's soil
dust
glass particles [melted from impact]
found on highlands
moon's core
not massive enough for solid IRON core
moon's magnetic field
small magnetic field
PROBLEMATIC:
core should have cooled by now
NO liquid core
not as much fission creating heat
no atmosphere
ORIGIN OF THE MOON:
double planet theory
clump together masses
CHALLENGE:
different densities and compositions
ORIGIN OF THE MOON:
fission
lump of earth flies off
CHALLENGE:
different elemental abundances and wrong orbit
ORIGIN OF THE MOON:
capture
moon formed elsewhere & captured in our gravity
CHALLENGE:
very difficult to do w/o retrorockets
ORIGIN OF THE MOON:
giant impact theory
mars type object hits earth -> orbits
WORKS:
density difference
different elements
CHALLENGE:
what are chances of collision?
crazy moon stuff
- we should not have a moon that big
- wider on equators than poles
- tilt of earth would change in not so big
solar system
anything on orbit around sun
solar system's components
asteroid
comet
dust
moons
sun
planets
asteriods
old, cratered, abnormally shaped
comet
water, ice, carbon dioxide,
dirt, dust
10 km across
dust
100th size grain of sand
flying all over space
form planets
sun
100x bigger than earth
10x bigger than jupiter
99.8% of the solar system
[jupiter is more than 1/2 the rest]
planet sequence from sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptrue, Pluto
solar system lay out
- closer planets closer to sun
- orbit in a single plain [except pluto & mercury]
- counterclockwise orbits
- not very eccentric
terrestrial planets
mecury, venus, earth, mars
smaller, lower mass, high density
few or no satellites = fewer moons
no rings
slower rotation
jovian planets
jupiter saturn, uranus, neptune
bigger, more massive, low density
many satellites = many moons
all have rings
faster rotation
atmosphere and magnetic fields
magnetic field has nothing to do with atmosphere
mass and movement
more massive things move slower at same speed
jovian planet atmosphere
hydrogen, helium, water, methane, ammonia, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
atmospheres' primary contents
primarily hydrogen and helium
enhances size
ATMOSPHERIC FORMATION:
catasrophic theory
two stars collide
similar to giant impact theory
ATMOSPHERIC FORMATION:
evolutionary theory
rotating gas cloud become condensed by consercation of angular motion
mercury
2nd smallest plante with pluto
mercury's surface
craters similarly old, but less deep than moon
--more gravity so sides don't bulit so high
no maria, but SCARPS, fault lines
mercury's density
lower density than earth, but more heavy elements [b/c of intense gravity]
mercury's core and magnetic field
big nickel-iron core
magnetic field 1% of earth's
NO molten core
tidal lock
simple rotio between rotation and revolution [same face always toward other object]
mercury's rotation and revolution
tidally locked to the sun by gravity
rotates 1.5 times per revolution
1 revoltuion =.5 solar day; 2 yrs = 1 solar day
caloris basin
enormous crater impact [ripples]
sun's gravity locked onto area b/c densist
tidal pt. at closest to sun
atmosphere and temperature on mercury
large temperature variations
no atmosphere
ice on poles and in crators
if you were on mercury's surface
no atmosphere -- body pressure
10x influx of radiation
intense temperature
no oxygen b/c not atmosphere
venus
closest planet to earth
close to same size and density as earth
venus' magnetic field
molten core [spinning] but NO magnetic field
venus' rotation
rotates backwards
venus' surface
relatively flat
no wind
evidence of past volcanism & platetectonics
-similar to moon --yellow color b/c of sulfuric atmosphere
venus' atmosphere
96% carbon dioxide; 3.5% nitrogen
sulfuric acid clouds
200 mi/hr winds
surface pressure about 90x earth's -- much heavier
greenhouse effect
venus' greenhouse effect
temperature of 850F
gases trap heat
no liquid water to dissolve carbon dioxide [primary difference btwn venus and earth]
mars
1/2 size of earth
smaller denisty than earth
mars' rotation and orbit
large variation in distance from sun [25M mi] -- eccentric
just longer solar day
25 degree axis tilt WRT the elliptic -- seasonal
life on mars
- "plant life" theory
- canals -- channels on surface as if erroded by water
- bacteria -- meteorite from mars with fossilized bacteria
surface
valcanoes - olympus mons
valles marineris
olympus mons
15 miles high' bigger than WA
advantage of low gravity & no plates
valles marineris
deeper than grande canyon
as long as US is wide
not errosional
mars' atmosphere
95% carbon dioxide
no ozone to protect molecues
oxygen rusts iron in soil
1/200 atmosphereic perssure of earth
dust storms of very fine grains
denser in past - water flow
continuing to lose atmosphere
ice on poles -- h20 and co2
mars' moons
phobos & deimos
less than 20 mi across
irregularly shaped
short periods [.3 & 1.3 days]
mars' magnetic field
no magnetic core, but weak field