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33 Cards in this Set

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All jovian planets
-are composed mostly of gas
- are larger than the terrestrial planets
-have rings
-have many moons
How do we explore the Jovian planets?
we send probes in much the way as we do with the terrestrial planets. except we use GRAVITY ASSIST to slingshot the probes around planets (Jupiter).
Gaileleo was launched in an effort to study which planet/
Jupiter
Cassinni was sent to study which planet?
Saturn
Huygen's probe was sent to study which planet?
Saturn's moon Titan.
Jovian planet characteristics

-atmospheric composition?
- inner core
- differential rotation
Mostly hydrogen and helium

Not solid... dense gas or liquid.

outer regions rotate differently than the inner rotation of the same planet.
All Jovian planets have strong magnetic fields. Why?
Because like earth they have liquid conductive cores.
Which planet has the most extreme tilt?
Uranus- EXTREME SEASONS!
On average how much denser are terrestrial planets than jovian planets?
5 times denser
Jupiter's atmosphere is composed of?
hydrogen (85%) and helium
What are the dark and light stripes around jupiter called?
Dark- belts

Light- Zones
What accounts for such divisions?
belts are of low pressure and zones are of high pressure. The wind patterns thus create the seperation.
Why then are the colors different?
Color difference is a result of temperature differences.
Jupiter's Atmosphere
-white ammonia clouds
-clouds lower than those are hotter and release ammonium hydrosulfide.
-at the lowest level clouds release ice or water vapor
Weather on Jupiter
Great Red spot- a hurricane twice the diameter of Earth that has been circulating for 300 years.
How is it possible for the Great Red Spot to continue without dying?
There are no continents on Jupiter to break it apart.
Saturn's atmosphere is composed of
Molecular hydrogen (93%) with some helium, argon, and ammonia.
Saturn's atmosphere

-first layer
-3 cloud layers
-thickness of atmosphere
-temperature
-what accounts for the thickness?
a layer of haze (like Jupiter)

Ammonium, Ammonium hydrosulfide, and ice.

3 times thicker than Jupiter

cooler than jupiter (further from sun)

Because of Saturn's lower surface gravity.
Weather on Saturn
Same spots as those on Jupiter have been found.
Atmospheric composition of Uranus and Neptune includes of hydrogen and helium. But also _________ and the difference in the above molecule accounts for ______.
Methane

Uranus (2%) less blue
Neptune (3%) More blue
Uranus surface features?
Featureless.

Cold clouds (rise) form haze and block lower clouds.
Neptune's surface features?
less dense haze and some features were seen including the dark spot which has vanished.
Neptune has a less dense haze which suggests it is warmer. How is this possible?
Despite it being further from the sun, Neptune generates its own heat.
Jupiter's internal structure.
Rocky core? metallic hydrogen is like liquid metal.

bulges 7% at the radius.
Saturn's internal structure?
Just like Jupiter with less assymetry.
Uranus and Neptune's internal structures?
Slushy
Internal heating in Neptune and Jupiter. How?
Primordial heat- Jupiter is still losing its heat from its formation.

Generation of heat: Neptune is heating because of gravitational effects on its drops of liquid helium.
What are the names of Jupiter's four moons?
Io- active volcanoes (b/c of Jupiter's wavering gravitational pull)
europa- covered with frozen water. Possibly liquid water underneath.
Ganamede and Callisto- large moons
Saturn's moon titan is importnat why?
evidence of erosion by liquid has been found. its atmosphere is of methane and ammonia.
Neptune's moon triton is important. Why?
has a retrograde motion. Also has active geysers.
Jovian rings

-solid or not?
-what are its main constituents
-why do they form?
Not solid

Mostly ice

gravity pulls a moon close and breaks it apart and keeps pieces surrounding planet.
Pluto

-mass
-distance
-formed where
-eccentricity of orbit.
20% of earth's moon's mass.

40 AU from the sun

Kuiper belt (short term comet

very eccentric deviant from a circle and way off the ecliptic
The discovery of other Kuiper belt objects such as ____________ led to the declassification of pluto as a planet.
Eris