Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
active region
A magnetic region on the solar surface that includes sunspots, prominences, flares, etc. (p. 131)
The glowing light display that results when a planet's magnetic field guides charged particles toward the north and south magnetic poles, where they strike the upper atmosphere and excite atoms to emit photons. (p. 137)
Babcock model
A model of the sun's magnetic cycle in which the differential rotation of the sun winds up and tangles the solar magnetic field in a 22-year cycle. This is thought to be responsible for the 11-year sunspot cycle. (p. 133)
Circulation in a fluid driven by heat. Hot material rises and cool material sinks. (p. 125)
coronal hole
An area of the solar surface that is dark at X-ray wavelengths. Thought to be associated with divergent magnetic fields and the source of the solar wind. (p. 137)
coronal mass ejection (CME)
Matter ejected from the sun's corona in powerful surges guided by magnetic fields. (p. 137)
Coulomb barrier
The electrostatic force of repulsion between bodies of like charge. Commonly applied to atomic nuclei. (p. 138)
An isotope of hydrogen in which the nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. (p. 139)
differential rotation
The rotation of a body in which different parts of the body have different periods of rotation. This is true of the sun, the Jovian planets, and the disk of the galaxy. (p. 132)
dynamo effect
The process by which a rotating, convecting body of conducting matter, such as Earth's core, can generate a magnetic field. (p. 132)
A solar prominence seen from above silhouetted against the bright photosphere. (p. 126)
A photograph (usually of the sun) taken in the light of a specific region of the spectrum - for example, an H-alpha filtergram. (p. 126)
A violent eruption on the sun's surface. (p. 137)
The fine structure of bright grains covering the sun's surface. (p. 125)
The study of the interior of the sun by the analysis of its modes of vibration. (p. 128)
magnetic carpet
The network of small magnetic loops that covers the solar surface. (p. 127)
Maunder butterfly diagram
A graph showing the latitude of sunspots versus time. First plotted by W. W. Maunder in 1904. (p. 130)
Maunder minimum
A period of less numerous sunspots and other solar activity between 1645 and 1715. (p. 131)
A neutral, massless atomic particle that travels at or nearly at the speed of light. (p. 139)
nuclear fission
Reactions that break the nuclei of atoms into fragments. (p. 135)
nuclear fusion
Reactions that join the nuclei of atoms to form more massive nuclei. (p. 135)
proton-proton chain
A series of three nuclear reactions that builds a helium atom by adding together protons. The main energy source in the sun. (p. 139)
On the sun, the merging of magnetic fields to release energy in the form of flares. (p. 137)
solar wind
Rapidly moving atoms and ions that escape from the solar corona and blow outward through the solar system. (p. 127)
A small, flamelike projection in the chromosphere of the sun. (p. 126)
strong force
One of the four forces of nature. The strong force binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. (p. 135)
Relatively dark spot on the sun that contains intense magnetic fields. (p. 124)
Very large convective features in the sun's surface. (p. 127)
weak force
One of the four forces of nature. The weak force is responsible for some forms of radioactive decay. (p. 135)
Zeeman effect
The splitting of spectral lines into multiple components when the atoms are in a magnetic field. (p. 131)