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29 Cards in this Set

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annular eclipse
A solar eclipse in which the solar photosphere appears around the edge of the moon in a bright ring, or annulus. The corona, chromosphere, and prominences cannot be seen. (p. 37)
aphelion
The orbital point of greatest distance from the sun. (p. 29)
apogee
The point farthest from Earth in the orbit of a body circling Earth. (p. 37)
autumnal equinox
The point on the celestial sphere where the sun crosses the celestial equator going southward. Also, the time when the sun reaches this point and autumn begins in the northern hemisphere - about September 22. (p. 28)
chromosphere
Bright gases just above the photosphere of the sun. (p. 36)
corona
On the sun, the faint outer atmosphere composed of low-density, high-temperature gas. (p. 37)
diamond-ring effect
During a total solar eclipse, the momentary appearance of a spot of photosphere at the edge of the moon, producing a brilliant glare set in the silvery ring of the corona. (p. 37)
ecliptic
The apparent path of the sun around the sky. (p. 26)
evening star
Any planet visible in the sky just after sunset. (p. 30)
lunar eclipse
The darkening of the moon when it moves through Earth's shadow. (p. 31)
Milankovitch hypothesis
Suggestion that Earth's climate is determined by slow periodic changes in the shape of its orbit, the angle of its axis, and precession. (p. 40)
morning star
Any planet visible in the sky just before sunrise. (p. 30)
node
The points where an object's orbit passes through the plane of Earth's orbit. (p. 39)
penumbra
The portion of a shadow that is only partially shaded. (p. 31)
perigee
The point closest to Earth in the orbit of a body circling Earth. (p. 37)
perihelion
The orbital point of closest approach to the sun. (p. 29)
photosphere
The bright visible surface of the sun. (p. 36)
prominence
Eruption on the solar surface. Visible during total solar eclipses. (p. 37)
revolution
Orbital motion about a point located outside the orbiting body. See also rotation. (p. 24)
rotation
Motion around an axis passing through the rotating body. See also revolution. (p. 24)
Saros cycle
An 18-year, 11-1/3-day period after which the pattern of lunar and solar eclipses repeats. (p. 39)
sidereal period
The time a celestial body takes to turn once on its axis or revolve once around its orbit relative to the stars. (p. 33)
solar eclipse
The event that occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking our view of the sun. (p. 35)
summer solstice
The point on the celestial sphere where the sun is at its most northerly point. Also, the time when the sun passes this point, about June 22, and summer begins in the northern hemisphere. (p. 28)
synodic period
The time a solar system body takes to orbit the sun once and return to the same orbital relationship with Earth. That is, orbital period referenced to Earth. (p. 33)
umbra
The region of a shadow that is totally shaded. (p. 31)
vernal equinox
The place on the celestial sphere where the sun crosses the celestial equator moving northward. Also, the time of year when the sun crosses this point, about March 21, and spring begins in the northern hemisphere. (p. 28)
winter solstice
The point on the celestial sphere where the sun is farthest south. Also the time of year when the sun passes this point, about December 22, and winter begins in the northern hemisphere. (p. 28)
zodiac
A band centered on the ecliptic and encircling the sky. (p. 27)