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34 Cards in this Set

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anorthosite
Rock of aluminum and calcium silicates found in the lunar highlands. (p. 391)
basalt
Dark igneous rock characteristic of solidified lava. (p. 384)
capture hypothesis
The theory that Earth's moon formed elsewhere in the solar nebula and was later captured by Earth. (p. 394)
comparative planetology
The study of planets in relation to one another. (p. 378)
composite volcano
A volcano formed by successive lava and ash flows. They have steep sides and, on Earth, are found along subduction zones. (p. 400)
condensation hypothesis
The theory that Earth and the moon condensed from the same cloud of material in roughly their present orbital relationship. (p. 394)
coronae
On Venus, large, round geological faults in the crust caused by the intrusion of magma below the crust. (p. 402)
ejecta
Pulverized rock scattered by meteorite impacts on a planetary surface. (p. 388)
fission hypothesis
The theory that the moon and Earth formed when a rapidly rotating protoplanet split into two pieces. (p. 394)
folded mountain range
A long range of mountains formed by the compression of a planet's crust. (p. 384)
global warming
The gradual increase in the surface temperature of Earth caused by human modifications to Earth's atmosphere. (p. 386)
greenhouse effect
The process by which a carbon dioxide atmosphere traps heat and raises the temperature of a planetary surface. (p. 386)
large-impact hypothesis
The theory that the moon formed from debris ejected during a collision between Earth and a large planetesimal. (p. 394)
lobate scarp
A curved cliff such as those found on Mercury. (p. 396)
mantle
The layer of dense rock and metal oxides that lies between the molten core and Earth's surface. Also, similar layers in other planets. (p. 381)
mare
One of the lunar lowlands filled by successive flows of dark lava. From the Latin for "sea." (p. 387)
micrometeorite
Meteorite of microscopic size. (p. 389)
midocean rise
One of the undersea mountain ranges that push up from the seafloor in the center of the oceans. (p. 384)
multiringed basin
Large impact feature (crater) containing two or more concentric rims formed by fracturing of the planetary crust. (p. 389)
outflow channel
Geological feature produced by the rapid motion of floodwaters. Applied to features on Mars. (p. 409)
P wave
A pressure wave. A type of seismic wave produced in Earth by the compression of the material. (p. 382)
plastic
A material with the properties of a solid but capable of flowing under pressure. (p. 383)
plate tectonics
The constant destruction and renewal of Earth's surface by the motion of sections of crust. (p. 395)
primeval atmosphere
Earth's first air. (p. 386)
rays
Ejecta from meteorite impacts forming white streamers radiating from some lunar craters. (p. 388)
rift valley
A long, straight, deep valley produced by the separation of crustal plates. (p. 385)
S wave
A shear wave. A type of seismic wave produced in Earth by the lateral motion of the material. (p. 382)
secondary atmosphere
The gases outgassed from a planet's interior; rich in carbon dioxide. (p. 386)
secondary crater
Impact crater formed by debris ejected from a larger impact. (p. 388)
shield volcano
Wide, low-profile volcanic cone produced by highly liquid lava. (p. 400)
subduction zone
A region of a planetary crust where a tectonic plate slides downward. (p. 384)
terminator
The dividing line between daylight and darkness on a planet or moon. (p. 387)
valley network
A system of dry drainage channels on Mars that resembles the beds of rivers and tributary streams on Earth. (p. 409)
vesicular basalt
A porous rock formed by solidified lava with trapped bubbles. (p. 391)