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63 Cards in this Set

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spectrum
The complete spectrum of light including: radio waves, infared, invisible light, ultra violet light, x-rays, and gamma rays
wavelength
crest to crest: the distance between adjacent peaks
frequency
Hz-beats per sec: describes the rate at which peaks of a wave pass by a point; measured in units of 1/s, often called cycles per second of hertz
speed of light
300,000km/s
photons
duality particle or wave: an individual particle of light, characterized by a wavelength and a frequency.
types of light
Gamma: most powerful shortest wave
X-ray: 1-20nm
UV: sunburn
Visible: 400-700nm
IR: heat
Radio: longest wave least powerful
atoms
Protons: positive particles
Neutrons: no charge
Electrons: negative particle
atomic number
number of protons
isotopes
same protons diff neutrons
molecules
several atoms
types of spectrum
Thermal: just certain colors=hot gas
Absorption: cool gas –all colors some missing
Continuous: all colors-solid
ions
atoms with a positive or negative electric charge.
doppler effect
shifts the wavelengths of spectral features of objects when motion towards or away
redshift vs blue shift
-red is going away(longer)-blue is moving toward (shorter)
Angular resolution(of a telescope)
ability to see details
refracting vs reflection
refracting: using lenses to focus light from distant objects. Reflecting: uses a curved primary mirror to gather light to a secondary mirror that lies in front of it.
adaptive optics
helps with seeing: a technique in which a ground based telescope’s mirror flexes rapidly to compensate for the bending of starlight caused by atmospheric pressure.
interferometer
using several telescopes
terrestrial vs jovian
Terrestrial: rocky, similar to earth. Jovian: Gasseous, similar to Jupiter.
hydrogen compounds
common on Jovians
asteroids and the belt
small rocks that orbit a star –asteroid belt: mars to Jupiter
comets
ice –leftovers from formation
nebular theory
gas and dust forming our solar system
accretion
bodies hitting each other and growing: the process by which small objects gather together to form larger objects.
planetesimals
accretion in the solar nebula to form planets.
radiometric dating
method to date materials: comparing radioactive substance to the amount of its decay.
extra solar planets
over 160 planets known
earths cross section
Core -> Mantle -> Lithosphere -> Crust.
lithosphere
brittle upper crust, outer layer of a planet
differentation
process of gravity separating materials according to density—earth layered the most
convection
heat transfer by currents, wwarm material rises and cooler material falls.
magnetic field
region surrounding a magnet, generated by convection.
seismic p vs s waves
p primary (pushing) fastest—s-secondary (side to side) –will not move thru liquid
aurora
suns wind hits upper atmosphere, dancing lights in the sky caused by charged particles entering our atmosphere (aurora borealis)
magnetosphere
Region around a planet where charged particles are trapped by the planets magnetic field:
Van Allen belts surround earth:
a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, trapped by Earth's magnetic field.
earth shapers
Impacts
Volcanoes
Tectonics (internal stresses)
Erosion
Ozone
The Molecule O3, which is a particularly good absorber of UV light.
Greenhouse Effect
warming of atmosphere by gasses
greenhouse gasses
water vapor and carbon dioxide and methane
Moon Info
Size-1/4 size of earth

Maria—dark old impacts –mascons

Highlands—oldest white crust
moon origin
a mars size object collided with earth and broke away material from earths outer layer and sent it into orbit around the earth.
mercury
Size-1/3 earth

Rotation-59days

Revolution-88days

Temperature-900F
Caloris Basin (Crater)—
largest impact in solar system on mercury
mercury shrinking
formed sharp cliffs
venus
Size-same as earth

Rotation-243 days backward

Revolution-225 days

Temperature-900F-by greenhouse effect

Atmosphere-90 times thicker than earth and 96% carbon dioxide

Clouds-thick and sulfuric acid
mars
Size-1/2 earth

Rotation-24h 30min

Revolution-23 months(2 years)

Atmosphere-1% earth carbon dioxide

Channels—once flowing rivers

Permafrost –at poles and maybe over planet water frozen
jupiter
Size-11 earths

Rotation-about 10 hours

Revolution-12 years

Mass-318 earths
Great Red Spot (jupiter)
hurricane over 300 years old
jupiter zones
whitish bands warmer
jupiter belts
dark bands colder
ganymede
largest moon in the solar system (jupiter)
callisto
3rd largest moon in solar system and most heavily cratered (jupiter)
io
jupiter’s moon with active sulfur volcanoes due to tidal heating
europa
ice covered cracked surface (jupiter)
saturn
Size-9 earths

Rotation-about 10 hours

Revolution-29.5 years

Mass-95 earths
Titan
Saturn moon with thick nitrogen atmosphere
roche limit
area around a planet that will break up a moon
cassini division
gap in Saturn’s rings due to tides from shepherding moons
ringlets
Saturn’s rings are in small ringlets again may be due to shepherding moons
Uranus
Size-4 earths

Rotation-about 17 hours

Revolution-84 years

Tilt-98 degrees on its side
neptune
Size-4 earths

Rotation-about 16 hours

Revolution-165 years
triton
moon around Neptune with active Nitrogen geysers