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251 Cards in this Set

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The two planets with the highest eccentricities and orbital tilts are _______ and _______.
mecury and pluto
Asteroids and meteoroids are often _______ in composition, in contrast to comets, which are generally _______ in composition.
rocky

icy
Most asteroids are found between the orbits of _______ and _______.
mars and jupiter
The Trojan asteroids share an orbit with _______.
Jupiter
Passage of a comet near the Sun may leave a _______ moving in the comet’s orbit.
meteroid swarm
When a meteoroid, asteroid, or comet fragment enters Earth’s atmosphere, you see a _______.
meteor
The oldest meteorites are _______ years old.
4.6 billion
By the time planetesimals had formed, the accretion process was accelerated by the effect of ______
gravity
In the final stage of accretion, the largest protoplanets were able to attract large quantities of _______ from the solar nebula.
gas
Unlike the planetesimals that formed the terrestrial planets, those that formed the jovian planets were made up of _______ material.
icy
The reason the planetesimals of the asteroid belt did not form a larger object was probably the gravitational influence of _______.
Jupiter
Name three differences between terrestrial and jovian planets.
Terrestial planets are close to the sun, smaller. Jovian planets are large, at times have rings, and far away from sun
Why are asteroids and meteoroids important to planetary scientists?
so they can understand formation of the universe
Do all asteroid orbits lie between Mars and Jupiter?
no
What are comets like when they are far from the Sun? What happens when they enter the inner solar system?
comets far away have no light, have no coma, start to sublimate near the sun
What are the typical ingredients of a comet nucleus?
ice and rock
what is a meteor?
in earth's atomosphere
what is a meteroid?
it is in the air
what is a meteroite?
it has already hit earth
What causes a meteor shower?
earth passing through the orbit of a comet
What do meteorites reveal about the age of the solar system?
it's about 4.2 million years old
Why are the jovian planets so much larger than the terrestrial planets?
low gravity, higher temperature
How did the temperature at various locations in the solar nebula determine planetary composition?
it diffuses particles
Where did Earth’s water come from?
collision of numerous comet like planetismals, injected into solar system through an interaction with jovian planets
1. Accretion occurred faster in the inner part of the solar system than in the outer regions. a. True b. False
b. false
2. All planets have moons. a. True b. False
b. false
3. Asteroids were recently formed by the breakup of a planet orbiting in the asteroid belt. a. True b. False
b. false
Comet tails always lie along the comets orbit. a. True b. False
b. false
Comets are the sources of meteor showers. a. True b. False
true
Most comets have short periods and orbit close to the ecliptic plane. a. True b. False
b. false
Most planets orbit the Sun in nearly the same plane as Earth. a. True b. False
a. true
The direction of planetary revolution is the same as the direction of the Suns rotation.
a. True b. False
a. true
The Kuiper Belt is another name for the asteroid belt. a. True b. False
b. false
The largest planets also have the highest densities. a. True b. False
a. true
The solar system is highly differentiated. a. True b. False
b. false
As spinning objects contract, they:

a. spin faster
b. spin slower
c. spinat the same rate
d. stop spinning
a. spin faster
If astronomers standing on another star were using the Doppler "wobble" method to detect planets around our sun, which planet would be easiest to find?

a. Pluto
b. Earth
c. Mercury
d. Jupiter
d. Jupiter
Planetary alignments, in which the planets orbit into a line with the sun, cause ___ on the earth:

a. magnetic pole flips
b. earthquakes and resultant tidal waves
c. mass extinctions
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
e. none of the above
The most heavily cratered, and thus the oldest surface, of the terrestrial planets is:

a. Mars
b. Earth
c. Venus
d. Mercury
d. Mercury
Which of the following large meteorite impact craters is in the United States, five hours' drive from Albuquerque:

a. Barringer Crater
b. Manicouagan Reservoir
c. Chicxulub
d. Tunguska
a. Baringer Crate
6. Which of the following is not a way in which the terrestrial and jovian planets differ?

a. The terrestrial worlds are small and dense, while the jovian worlds are large and gaseous.
b. The terrestrial worlds have few or no moons, while the jovian worlds have many moons.
c. The jovian planets have orbits that are highly inclined to the ecliptic and do not revolve in the same direction as the terrestrial planets.
d. The terrestrial planets that do have atmospheres have ones made of heavier compounds in general than the atmospheres of the jovian planets.
e. The orbits of the terrestrial worlds are relatively close together, while the orbits of the jovian worlds are far apart.
c. The jovian planets have orbits that are highly inclined to the ecliptic and do not revolve in the same direction as the terrestrial planets.
What is the most important defining property of the Trojan asteroids?

a. They have orbits that are large even compared to the orbit of Pluto.
b. They have orbits that cross the orbit of Earth.
c. They have a composition that is the most primitive of all asteroids.
d. They have a composition that is metallic and rocky, indicating they originated from a differentiated body.
e. They orbit the Sun in the same path as Jupiter and 60 degrees ahead of or behind it.
e. They orbit the Sun in the same path as Jupiter and 60 degrees ahead of or behind it.
The ingredients of a typical comet's nucleus are most likely _____.

a. dust and rocky particles trapped in methane, ammonia, and water ice
b. carbon monoxide, liquid nitrogen, silicon gas, and sodium metal
c. metallic hydrogen with methane and ammonia ices, and rocks
d. sulfur, ammonia, alcohol, and liquid carbon dioxide
e. iron particles covered by liquid water, methane, and liquid hydrogen
a. dust and rocky particles trapped in methane, ammonia, and water ice
Which of the following characterizes the Kuiper Belt?

a. It is a stable region just ahead of Jupiter in its orbit.
b. It is a disk like region between the outer planets and the Oort cloud.
c. It lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
d. It is up to 100,000 astronomical units in size and spherical in shape.
e. It is the region occupied by the Earth-crossing Apollo asteroids.
b. It is a disk like region between the outer planets and the Oort cloud.
Which of the following names applies to a bright streak produced when a fragment of interplanetary debris plunges through the atmosphere?

a. meteoroid
b. meteor
c. meteorite
d. comet
e. aurora
b. meteor
What is the approximate age of the solar system according to the best available scientific evidence?

a. 5000 years
b. 500,000 years
c. 2.3 million years
d. 4.6 billion years
e. 10 to 15 billion years
d. 4.6 billion years
How much time after the beginning of solar system formation would have been required to form the main planets, according to present mathematical modeling?

a. 100 million years
b. 1 billion years
c. 2 billion years
d. 3 billion years
e. 4 billion years
a. 100 million years
From what characteristic or quantity are the names of meteor showers derived?

a. From the number of meteors per hour that are observed.
b. From the time of year at which they occur.
c. From the parent comet or meteor that produces the debris.
d. From the constellation that contains the apparent point in space from which they appear to radiate.
e. Meteor showers are not named since they do not tend to repeat at regular intervals, but occur randomly from time to time.
e. Meteor showers are not named since they do not tend to repeat at regular intervals, but occur randomly from time to time.
What are terrestial planets?
four inner planets, terrestial derives from the words latin "earth" and "land"

Mercury Venus Mars and Earth
what are the jovian planets?
the four most outer planets

Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune
What are asteroids and meteroids?
fragments of rocky material, somewhat similar in composition to the outer layers of the terrestial planets
what are comets?
predominantly icry rather than rocky in composition
Where are the vast majority of asteroids found?
in the asteroid belt
what are earth-crossing asteroids?
asteroids that move on orbits that intersect with earth's orbit
what is the nucleus of a comet?
the main solid body of a comet that is only a few kilometers in diameter
what is a coma?
when the icy surface of a comet becomes too hot and diffuses around the nucleus of a comet to form a cloud
what is the hydrogen envelope?
an invisible space that streches across millions of kilometers of space engulfing the comet's coma
what is an ion tail?
it is an approminately straight, often made of glowing, linear streamers
what is a dust tail?
is usually broad, diffuse, and gently curved. rich in microscopic dust particles that rflect sunlight, making the tail viisible from afar
what is a solar wind?
an invisible stream of matter and radiation escaping from the sun.
what is the Kuiper belt?
a place that astronomers blieve short period comets originate beyond the oribt of Neptune, in a region of the outer solar system
what is an Oort cloud?
named after Durch astronomer Jan Oort. a huge cloud of comets lying far beyond the orbit of Pluto
what is a meteor?
a sudden streak of light in the night sky caused by friction between the earth's atomposhere and incoimng piece of asterioid
what is a meteorite?
any piece of interplanetary debris that survives the fiery passage through our atmosphere
what is a meteroid swarm?
fragments that intially travel in tightly knit group of dust or pebble sized objects
what are micrometeroid?
meteorioids that parent the comet's tail
what are extrasolar planets?
planets orbiting stars other than the sun
what is a nebula?
a large cloud of interstellar dust and gas
what is a solar nebula?
swirling mass destined to become our solar system
what is a nebular theory?
idea that planets form from the solar nebula
what is the condensation theory?
rests solely on old nebular theory combinign its basic physical reasoning with new information about interstellar chemistry
what is accretion?
the gradual growth of small objects by collision and sticking
what are planetismals?
objects the size of small moons, having gravitational fields strong enough to sweep up mateial that would otherwise not of colldiing with them
what are protoplanets?
accumulations of matter that would evenutally evolve into the planets we know today
what is fragmentation?
collisions that broke into small chuncks
what is a protosun?
the first formation of our sun
what is selection effect?
lightweight planets, or planets far from their parent stars, simply don'y produce large enough velocity fluctuations to be detectable
what is surface gravity?
strength of the gravitational force at the body's surface
what is the escape speed?
sppreed required for any object--an atom, a baseball, a spaceship-- to escape forever from the body's graviational pull
what is the mantle?
the space between outer core and crust
what is the crust
the surface of earth
what is the hydrosphere?
comprises of rivers, lakes and the liquid oceans
what is an atmosphere?
the air that lies above the surface
what is a magnetosphere?
a zone of charged particles trapped by out planet's magnetic field
what are tides?
a familar daily fluctuation in ocean levels
what is a tidal bulge?
a strecthcing along the earth and moon that produces a 3% deformoration
what is a tidal force?
the variation of the mon's gravity across eath is an example of differntial foce
what is synchronous orbit?
the rotation period of a body is precisely equal to its orbital period around another body
what is troposphere?
the region below about 12 km of the atmosphere
what is the stratosphere?
extends up to an altitutde of 40-50km in atmosphere
what is a mesphere?
between 50-80 km in atmosphere
what is ionosphere?
above 80 km in atomphere
what is convection?
the contrast of upwlling of warm air and concurrent downward flow of cooler air to take its place
what is the ozone layer?
where incoming solar ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by atmospheric oxygen, ozone, and nitrogen
what is the greenhouse effect?
partial trapping of solar radiation
what is an earthquake?
causes our planet to vibrate a little
what are seismc waves?
move outward from site of quake
how do we get the distance of the outercore and innercore
from seismic waves
what is the distance of the outer core?
3500 km
what is the distance of the inner core?
1300km
what is differentiation?
the variation in density and compositon
what is radioactivity?
the release of energy by certain unstable elements, such as uranium and thorium
what is plate tectonics?
technical term of the plates
what is maria?
means "seas", ussed to describe certain parts of the moon that Galileo thought were seas
what are highlands?
the place original astronomers thought were continents, but are actually just the flat plains of the moon
what are the Van Allen belts?
zones within the magnetosphere
what is an aurora?
the collisions of air molecules within the magnetosphere that createa a light show
what is intercrater plains?
result of meteoric bomaadment which are extensive
what is a scarp?
a cliff that does not appear to be result of volcanic acticity
what are sheild volcanoes?
built up over long periods of time by sucessful eruptions and lava flows
what are coronae?
largest structures on venus that are huge and roughly circular
what are runoff channels?
interconnected old water rivers on Mars
what are outflow channels?
not interconnected water things that indicate there were floods on mars
what is permafrost?
a layer of water ice lying just below our planet's surfeace, much like that found in artic regions
what is a secondary atomphere?
results from the planets release of interior energy called outgassing
what is a primary atimphereshere?
consists of light gasses most common in early solar system? hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia and water vapor
what is a runaway greenhouse effect?
the idea that all the oceans could evaporate due to higher heat from sun, causing more carbon dioxide in atomosphere
Of Earth’s crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core, which layer is the thinnest?
crust
Earth is unique among the planets in that it has _______ on its surface.
liquid water
The tidal force is due to the _______ in the gravitational force from one side of Earth to the other.
variation
The _______ on the Moon are dark, flat, roughly circular regions hundreds of kilometers in diameter.
maria
Craters on the Moon are primarily caused by _______.
meteoric impact
The lunar maria’s dark, dense rock originally was part of the _______ of the Moon.
mantle
Earth’s atmosphere is 78 percent _______ and 21 percent _______.
nitrogen

oxygen
The troposphere is where the process called _______ occurs.
convention
An increase in the level of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere would _______ our planet’s temperature.
increase
When trapped electrons and protons from the magnetosphere eventually collide with the upper atmosphere, they produce an _______.
auroa
Observations of seismic waves imply that Earth’s inner core is _______ and the outer core is _______.
liquid

solid
For differentiation to have occurred, Earth’s interior must, at some time in the past, have been largely _______.
molten
Explain how the Moon produces tides in Earth’s oceans.
moon pulls on the oceans
In contrast to Earth, the Moon undergoes extremes in temperature. Why
due to the moon's lack of atomposphere
Use the concept of escape speed to explain why the Moon has no atmosphere.
moon has low mass and low escape speed
What is the greenhouse effect? Is the greenhouse effect operating in Earth’s atmosphere helpful or harmful? What are the consequences of an enhanced greenhouse effect?
heating of the earth

yes it is harmful

could result in global warming
Give two reasons geologists believe that part of Earth’s core is liquid.
seismic waves travel through liquid rock
What process is responsible for the surface mountains, oceanic trenches, and other large-scale features on Earth’s surface?
plate tentonics
What is the primary source of erosion on the Moon? Why is the average rate of lunar erosion so much less than on Earth?
cratering, also the earth has no water or wind erosion
Describe the theory of the Moon’s origin currently favored by many astronomers.
mars sized body struck the earth
Eventually, one side of Earth will never see the moon. a. True b. False
a. true
Hooks and slices are curved shots in golf that are caused by differences in air pressure on opposite sides of the ball. Thus, astronauts who hit golf balls on the moon always hit the balls: a. to the left b. to the right c. straight
c. straight
The "dark" side of the moon is always dark. a. True b. False
b. false
The highest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundi, Nova Scotia, Canada. Changes in the height of the ocean's surface there can exceed 40 feet in the course of a day. These tides are caused by:

a. the rotation of Earth's core
b. plate tectonics
c. wind in Earth's atmosphere
d. the gravitational pull of the Moon
d. the gravitational pull of the Moon
The surface of the Moon has tides (the ground swells up and down) twice a day similarly to Earth's oceans and surface. a. True b. False

6. Turbulence can occur when an airliner flies in the:
a. ionosphere
b. mesosphere
c. stratosphere
d. troposphere
d. troposphere
Because of the tidal forces, the Moon is in a synchronous orbit around Earth. a. True
b. False
a. True
Because of the tides, Earths rotation rate is increasing. a. True b. False
b. False
Earths atmosphere is composed primarily of oxygen. a. True b. False
b. False
Earths magnetic field is the result of our planets large, permanently magnetized iron core. a. True b. False
b. False
Like Earth, the Moon has a liquid metal core. a. True b. False
b. False
Lunar maria are extensive lava-flow regions. a. True b. False
a. true
13. Samples of Earths core are available from volcanos. a. True b. False
b. false
The average density of Earth is less than the density of water. a. True b. False
b. false
The Moon has a weak magnetic field. a. True b. false
b. false
The Moon has no detectable atmosphere. a. True b. False
a. true
There is one high tide and one low tide per day at any given coastal location on Earth. a. True b. False
b. false
Volcanic activity continues today on the surface of the Moon. a. True b. False
b. false
Water vapor and nitrogen are the primary greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere. a. True b. False
b. false
Mercury's iron core contains a _______ fraction of the planet's mass than does Earth's core.
larger (1/4?)
2. Mercury's rate of rotation was first measured using _______.
radar
Although Mercury's daytime temperatures are always very hot, it may still be possible for the planet to have sheets of water ice at its _______.
poles
Mercury's _______ is about 1/100 that of Earth and was originally thought not to exist at all.
magnetic field
Venus's rotation is unusual because it is _______.
slow and retrograde
The most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Venus is _______.
carbon dioxide
The runaway greenhouse gas in the atmosphere of Venus is _______.
carbon dioxide
The surface of Venus has been mapped using _______.
radar
the surface of Venus appears to have been resurfaced by _______ every few hundred million years.
volcanism
The main difficulties in using landers to study Venus's surface are the planet's extremely high _______ and _______.
temperature

atmospheric pressure
The southern hemisphere of Mars consists of heavily _______ highlands.
cratered
The Tharsis region of Mars is a large equitorial _______.
bulge
The great height of Martian volcanoes is a direct result of the planet's low _______.
gravity
The flowing-liquid appearance of the ejecta surrounding Martian impact craters is evidence of a layer of _______ just under the surface.
water ice
. Runoff channels on Mars carried _______ from the southern mountains into the valleys.
ice
In contrast to Earth, Mercury undergoes extremes in temperature. Why?
due to lack of atmosphere
What do Mercury's magnetic field and large average density imply about the planet's interior?
it is a high density
Why does Venus appear so bright to the naked eye?
Venus is the third brightest planet, next to the sun and moon
Venus probably has a molten iron-rich core like Earth. Why doesn't it also have a magnetic field?
production of magnetic fields requires iron rich core and relatively rapid rate of rotation
What are the main constituents of Venus's atmosphere? What are clouds in the upper atmosphere made of?
96.5 carbon dioxide

3.5 nitrogen
What is the runaway greenhouse effect, and how might it have altered the climate of Venus?
relates to Venus and evaporation of her oceans. it would happen on earth if there was more solar heating
Why is Mars red?
lots of iron oxide
What is the greenhouse effect? Is the greenhouse effect operating in Earth’s atmosphere helpful or harmful? What are the consequences of an enhanced greenhouse effect?
heating of the earth

yes it is harmful

could result in global warming
Give two reasons geologists believe that part of Earth’s core is liquid.
seismic waves travel through liquid rock
What process is responsible for the surface mountains, oceanic trenches, and other large-scale features on Earth’s surface?
plate tentonics
What is the primary source of erosion on the Moon? Why is the average rate of lunar erosion so much less than on Earth?
cratering, also the earth has no water or wind erosion
Describe the theory of the Moon’s origin currently favored by many astronomers.
mars sized body struck the earth
Eventually, one side of Earth will never see the moon. a. True b. False
a. true
Hooks and slices are curved shots in golf that are caused by differences in air pressure on opposite sides of the ball. Thus, astronauts who hit golf balls on the moon always hit the balls: a. to the left b. to the right c. straight
c. straight
The "dark" side of the moon is always dark. a. True b. False
b. false
The highest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundi, Nova Scotia, Canada. Changes in the height of the ocean's surface there can exceed 40 feet in the course of a day. These tides are caused by:

a. the rotation of Earth's core
b. plate tectonics
c. wind in Earth's atmosphere
d. the gravitational pull of the Moon
d. the gravitational pull of the Moon
The surface of the Moon has tides (the ground swells up and down) twice a day similarly to Earth's oceans and surface. a. True b. False

6. Turbulence can occur when an airliner flies in the:
a. ionosphere
b. mesosphere
c. stratosphere
d. troposphere
d. troposphere
Because of the tidal forces, the Moon is in a synchronous orbit around Earth. a. True
b. False
a. True
Because of the tides, Earths rotation rate is increasing. a. True b. False
b. False
Earths atmosphere is composed primarily of oxygen. a. True b. False
b. False
Earths magnetic field is the result of our planets large, permanently magnetized iron core. a. True b. False
b. False
Like Earth, the Moon has a liquid metal core. a. True b. False
b. False
Lunar maria are extensive lava-flow regions. a. True b. false
a. true
Samples of Earths core are available from volcanos. a. True b. false
b. false
The average density of Earth is less than the density of water. a. True b. False
b. false
. The Moon has a weak magnetic field. a. True b. False
b. false
The Moon has no detectable atmosphere. a. True b. False
a. true
There is one high tide and one low tide per day at any given coastal location on Earth. a. True b. False
b. false
Volcanic activity continues today on the surface of the Moon. a. True b.false
b. false
Water vapor and nitrogen are the primary greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere. a. True b. False
b. false
Mercury's iron core contains a _______ fraction of the planet's mass than does Earth's core.
larger
Mercury's rate of rotation was first measured using _______.
radar
Although Mercury's daytime temperatures are always very hot, it may still be possible for the planet to have sheets of water ice at its _______.
poles
. Mercury's _______ is about 1/100 that of Earth and was originally thought not to exist at all.
magnetic field
Venus's rotation is unusual because it is _______.
slow and retrograde
The most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Venus is _______.
carbon dioxide
The runaway greenhouse gas in the atmosphere of Venus is _______.
carbon dioxide
The surface of Venus has been mapped using _______.
radar
the surface of Venus appears to have been resurfaced by _______ every few hundred million years.
volcanism
The main difficulties in using landers to study Venus's surface are the planet's extremely high _______ and _______.
temperature

atmospheric pressure
The southern hemisphere of Mars consists of heavily _______ highlands.
cratered
The Tharsis region of Mars is a large equitorial _______.
bulge
The great height of Martian volcanoes is a direct result of the planet's low _______.
gravity
The flowing-liquid appearance of the ejecta surrounding Martian impact craters is evidence of a layer of _______ just under the surface.
water ice
Runoff channels on Mars carried _______ from the southern mountains into the valleys.
ice
In contrast to Earth, Mercury undergoes extremes in temperature. Why?
due to lack of atmosphere
What do Mercury's magnetic field and large average density imply about the planet's interior?
it has a high denisty
Why does Venus appear so bright to the naked eye?
Venus is third brightest star in the sky, rght next to sun and moon
Venus probably has a molten iron-rich core like Earth. Why doesn't it also have a magnetic field?
production of magnetic fields requires iron rich core and relatively rapid rate of rotation
What are the main constituents of Venus's atmosphere? What are clouds in the upper atmosphere made of?
96.5 carbon dioxide

3.5 nitrogen
What is the runaway greenhouse effect, and how might it have altered the climate of Venus?
relates to Venus
Why is Mars red?
lots of iron oxide
What is the evidence that water once flowed on Mars?
river and stream channels
Why were Martian volcanoes able to become so large?
gravity on mars is 40% that of earth's
Given that Mars has an atmosphere and its composition is mostly carbon dioxide, why isn't there a significant greenhouse effect to warm its surface?
plenty of CO, jjust no atmosphere to get warmed by it
Relative to its size, the core of Mercury is ______ than that of Earth.
a. larger b. smaller c. denser d. hotter e. more magnetized
a. larger
Which statement is not true about the polar caps of Mars?

a. They shrink and grow with the Mars seasons.
b. They contain a residual cap, which remains frozen.
c. They cause variations in the atmospheric pressure.
d. They are both predominantly water ice, with a small amount of carbon dioxide.
e. They store a large fraction of the gas that was once contained in the Mars atmosphere.
.d. They are both predominantly water ice, with a small amount of carbon dioxide.
. The lack of a strong magnetic field on Venus is probably due in part to which of the following considerations?

a. its nearness to the Sun
b. its thick atmosphere
c. its solid core
d. its slow overall rotation
e. its high surface temperature
d. its slow overall rotation
The surface of Mars shows which of the following principal characteristics?

a. Uniform equal cratering throughout the planet's surface.
b. Two distinctly different regions with different cratering records and histories.
c. No very old regions, only newly renewed surfaces.
d. Many micrometeorite impacts that have erased previous surface features.
e. A pattern of crustal wrinkles from localized interior plate tectonics.
b. Two distinctly different regions with different cratering records and histories.
Which of the following is true about the planetary feature known as Olympus Mons?

a. It is a volcanic peak on Mars nearly as big across as Texas.
b. It is an island on Earth that projects above the ocean.
c. It is a volcano on Venus that formed over a hot spot.
d. It is an impact crater on Mercury that nearly shattered the planet.
e. It was formed by slow erosion of the surrounding material
. It is a volcanic peak on Mars nearly as big across as Texas.
Mars has a distinctive reddish surface primarily because of _____.

a. dust storms that redden the light scattered by the Sun from its surface
b. iron oxide due to a process on its surface that formed rust
c. sulfuric acid that etched a reddish color into its surface rocks
d. a thick atmosphere that causes the blue light to be absorbed
e. ancient volcanic flows that poured out vast amounts of red lava on the surface
b. iron oxide due to a process on its surface that formed rust
Lava flows are common on the surface of Venus. a. True b. False
a. true
Mars has the largest volcanoes in the solar system. a. True b. False
a. true
Mercury has nighttime low temperatures of 100 K, well below the freezing point of water. a. True b. False
a. true
Mercury has no detectable atmosphere. a. True b. false
a. true
Mercury’s solar day is longer than its solar year. a. True b. False
a. true
Numerous surface features on Venus can be seen from Earth-based observations made in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. a. True b. False
b. false
Some volcanic activity continues today on the surface of Mercury. a. True b.
b. false
The average surface temperature of Venus is about 250 K. a. True b. False
b. false
The northern hemisphere of Mars is much older than the southern hemisphere.
a. True b. False
b. false
The orange-red color of the surface of Mars is primarily due to rust (iron oxide) in its soil. a. True b. False
a. true
There are many indications of plate tectonics on Mars. a. True b. False
b. false
There is strong circumstantial evidence that active volcanism continues on Venus.
a. True b. False
a. true
Valles Marineris is similar in size to Earths Grand Canyon. a. True b. False
b. false
Venus has a magnetic field similar to that of Earth. a. True b. False
b. false
The asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs is estimated to be how big?
10 kn in size
How much mass does Haley's comet lose each orbit?
100 billion kilograms per orbit is lost
How many extra solar planets have been discovered as to date?
210 planets
How far away was the moon when 1st formed?
14000 miles
How many example of ricotech craters happened on the moon?
1
How many reversals of the earth's magnetic field has been recorded?
an average of about 1000