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41 Cards in this Set

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JULY
aphelion
parallax
the apparent change of position of an object due to a change in location
COPERNICUS
1. planets revolve around the sun
2. explained retrograde motion without use of epicycles
Lyman
electron jumps up or down from ground state
solar eclipse
Earth passes through the Moon's shadow
declination
angular distance north or south of the celestial equator
sidereal period
the amount of time it takes the Moon to circle the sky once and return to the same position among the stars
azimuth
angle measured from North along the horizon
lunar eclipse
moon passes through Earth's shadow
JAN
perihelion
ecliptic
the apparent path of the sun around the sky
Newtons 3 Laws
1. Law of Inertia
2. acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force acting on the object in the direction of hte force and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object
3. objects exert equal and opposite forces on one another
frequency
how frequently a vibration occurs
right ascension
angle meansured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox
ARISTOTLE
1. Earth center of the universe
2. Heavens are perfect
Electromagnetic Radiation
(travels at the speed of light)
changing electric and magnetic fields that travel through space and transfer energy from one place to another
ground state
the lowest level in which an electron can exist (prefered state)
black body radiation
dense hot objects emit light in a continuous spectrum
*only absorb light
synodic period
the amount of time it takes the Moon to go through one complete cycle of phases
electron
negative charged particle
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
everything attracts everything else with a force that equals the product of their masses and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
tempterature
meausre of energy of motion of particles in a substance
GALILEO
1. moon not perfect
2. Milky Way consists of numerous stars
3. Jupiter has several moons
4. sun has sunspots that move
5. Venus experiences a complete set of phases
continuous spectra
heated solids, liquids, and dense gas
circumpolar constellations
constellation that never rise nor set (always observable)
doppler shift
light we see from an object moving away or towards us
wavelength
distance from peak to peak
Keplers 3 Laws
1. planet moves in eliptical orbit w/ sun as the center
2. line from sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervals
3. squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their average distances from the Sun
protons
positive charged particles
altitude
angular distance above or below the horizon
neutrons
a particle with no charge
zodiac
a belt around the sky 18 degrees wide centered on the ecliptic
absorbtion spectra
continous spectra-lines absorbed by a gas
photon
a bundle of light energy
*energy varies inversely w/ wavelength
Balmer
electron jumps from 2nd level
emission spectra
rarefied gases
Paschen
electron jumps from 3rd level
nucleus
center of an atom containing protons and neutrons
blueshift
shift of wavelength (short) moving towrds us
redshift
shift of wavelength (long) moving away from us
BRAHE
1. discovered supernova
2. earth center; planets orbit the sun
3. detailed measurements of planets motions over 20 yrs