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15 Cards in this Set

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interstellar cloud
cloud compresses, gravity takes over, compressing the cloud further
densest parts of cloud become garvitationally unstable and fragmentation occurs; radiation cannot escape; temp and pressure increase

pushes away light materials
eagel nebula
hot stars give off energy which evaporate dust and push gas away

EGGs:denser regions of gas and dust will contract under their own gravity, forming protostars
protostar
=collapsing cloud of gas and dust which will eventually become a star
condensation of solids
close to sun: metal oxides and pure metals

farther out: silicates and rocky materials

outer regions: ices (water, methane and ammonia)
planetesimals
from thru 1 of 2 methods:
1. condensation- atoms of gas hit dust grains and stick, adding mass to the particle
2. accretion- solid particles collide and stick to one another

form faster thru accretion then condensation
clearing of solar nebula
1.radiation pressure: light from sun exerted pressure on particles, pushing them further out of solar system

2.solar wind-flow of atoms from sun's upper atmosphere pushed particles out of solar system

3. as planets moved thru orbits, swept up material in their path

4. gravitational effects due to massive planets ejected particles
T Tauri Stars
protostars which exhibit violent surface activity/ strong stellar winds

energy in form of jets ejected perpendicular to the disk
star formation
as gas/dust clouds collapse, particles collide more frequently, increasing temp.

gas becomes ionized

when core is hot/dense enough, nuclear reactions occur

radiation energy halts gravitational collapse and star is born
hydrostatic equilibrium
gravity pushes in on star but pressure is pushing outward, balancing star ->radiation created

more mass=more gravity pushing in=more radiation needed to resist

brown dwarfs: failed stars, low mass
why extrasolar planets have high mass and low period
high mass: greater wobble produced by star's motion
low period: shorter period over which wobble occurs
sun properties
most hydrogen, some helium
completely gaseous
generate energy at core
strong magnetic field
layers
corona: outer atmosphere
chromosphere: lower atmosphere
photosphere: visible surface
granulation
size of texas, 10-20 minutes
brighter center, hotter center than edge, center blueshifted

convection: circulation in fluid driven by heat
zeeman effect
sunspots show splitting of emission lines,due to magnetic field
prominences
hot ionized gas trapped in magnetic fields