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### 17 Cards in this Set

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 conservation of momentum momentum can't change unless external force acts on them -when 2 balls hit the combined momentum after htey hit is the same as before (no external forces) conservation of angular momentum -can be change only by TORQUE (twisting force) -obj can only change its own momentum by transferrings ome to or from another object -earth needs no fuel!! -bc earth's angular speed depends on its distance from the sun its speed must be faster when its closer to the sun (radius is shorter) conservation of energy objects can gain or lose energy only by exchanging energy w other objects = all actions in universe involve exchanges of energy or conversion to another form 3 types of energy kinetic radiative potential kinetic energy objects in motion have kinetic energy potential energy stored energy - can be converted to kinetic or radiative radiative energy energy carried by light -why light can cause changes in matter (warm) thermal energy collective kinetic energy of many individual particals (temperature measure the avg kinetic energy of particals) -higher temp means particles have a higher average kinetic energy) gravitational potential energy depends on its mass and how far it can fall due to gravity (has more when higher up) mass-energy energy contained in mass itself -mass is a form of potential energy E= mc^2 (E= amt of potential energy) gravity extended to kepler's laws kepler's laws are consequences of the laws of motion and the universal law of gravitation KEPLER'S 2ND LAW: -planet moves faster when closer to sun (conservation of angular momentum) KEPLER'S 3RD LAW: -avg orbital speed higher for planets w smaller orbital distance -- --Planets closer to sun have stronger gravitational attraction "epicycle" the SMALL CIRCLE that turns around a bigger circle (as shown in the ptolemaic model) universal law of gravitation -every mass attracts every other mass thru a force called gravity -strength of gravity atrracting 2 objects is proportional to product of their masses (doubling one's mass doulbes force between them) -strength of gravity between 2 objects decreases w/ square of distance between their centers (doulbing their distance weakens the force by 2^2 (4) "spacetime" time dilation (time moves slower when moving faster) argues time and space cannot be seperated -must be consided a SINGLE ENTITY to push mass faster than the speed of light... would require an infinite amt of energy E=mc^2 potential energy (3 types?) 1)GRAVITATIONAL 2)CHEMICAL 3)ELECTRICAL increasing thermal energy? Decreasing thermal energy? increasing thermal energy = -causes bonds to break (dissociation, ionization, -plasma phase) decreasing thermal energy: -forms bonds, makes bonds stronger -