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63 Cards in this Set

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Equation for Angular Diameter
q = 57.30 Diameter / distance
Equation for Speed
Speed = Distance x Time
What is a degree made up of, and how many? What is that made up of?
1 degree = 60 arcminutes
1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds
Equation for Circumference
C = 2 x 3.14 x radius
Scientific Notation: Process for Multiplication and Division
You multiply and divide the constants, and either add (multiplication) or subtract (division) the exponents.
Scientific Notation: Process for Addition and Subtraction
You have to make the powers of ten the same, then just add or subtract the constants.
The white light images produced by Galileo's telescopes were tinged with color because of
chromatic aberration
Sites for new large ground-based telescopes are selected primarily on the basis of least amount of atmosphere (high alititude), dry, and elevation above sea-level, but not
proximity to universities and research centers
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a(n):
electronic camera that converts incoming light into electronic signals.
Basic unit of length in the metric system is the
meter
Which unit of measure, often used by astronomers, is not a SI unit?
kg/(m cubed)
If the Sun is just setting, and the Moon is at its full phase, the Moon will be
on the easter horizon
The time required for the Moon to return to the same position relative to the stars is approx.
28 days
When the Moon is lying on a line directly b/w the Earth and the Sun, not close enough to cast a full shadow on the Earth, we have a(n)
annular eclipse
A Star that appears brighter to an observer on Earth has a lower
apparent magnitude
A Star that is 100x fainter than another star at the same distance will be
5 magnitudes dimmer
A star that is 2 magnitudes brighter when compared with another star @ the same distance is about
6x more luminous
Who is given credit for idea that Earth is not center of universe?
Copernicus
THe closer a planet, asteroid, or comet is to the Sun in its orbit, the faster it moves. This is a consequence of
The Law of Equal Areas
Which is the only planet whose orbit is significantly tilted with respect to the ecliptic?
Pluto
The Earth's weather occurs in the
troposphere
Most of the rocks found on the Moon are
igneous
The surgace of Venus shows many familiar features, but no
oceans
The known Kuiper belt objects have orbital semimajor axes in the approx. range:
30 to 50 AU
The part of a comet composed of fine solid particles release from the ices of the nucleus as the vaporize is the
coma
Most meteorites found after observing their fall are made primarily of
iron
The length of its semimajor axis indicates that Pluto is, on average, ________ the Sun than Neptune
farther from
Three Criteria that Scientific Theory must Uphold
1. Must be consistent with known facts through observaion and experimentation.
2. Capable of making a prefiction both in the past and future.
3. Satisfy Occan's Razor that mature is simple.
What is the hardest and most common thing astronomers do ?
Measure distance
What are the five planets the ancients saw?
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
Celestial objects not visible to ancients
asteroids, interstellar dust and gas, galaxies, interplanetary dust.
Celestial obhects visible to ancients
stars, Earth's Moon, planets, comets, meteors
How many official constellations are there?
88
Name the kinds of electromagnetic radiation in order of wavelength (large to small)
radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
What is the theory that states that light is made up of a steady stream of particles?
The Corpuscular Theory by Newton
What is the Wave theory?
There is a similarity between light and water waves, and that light consists of waves.
How is info. about the universe conveyed?
By its light.
Define spectrum, spectroscopy, and spectrograph
Spectrum- (Newton) divides light into different wavelengths.
Spectroscopy- the science of analyzing the spectrum.
spectrograph- the instrument that spreads out the light.
What is the speed of light?
3 x 10 to the 8 m/s
What is the equation to determine the speed of light?
& x f = c
(f being the frequency in Hz or MHz-radio)
What is Kepler's 3rd Law?
P squared = a cubed
What is the luminosity equation?
L = R squared x T to the 4th
LGP Equation
(D/d) squared
The colder the object, the ________ the wavelength
longer
What is Wein's law
& max (m) = 0.0029 / T (k)
How do you convert F to C?
T (in F) = 9/5 C plus 32
What is Newton's version of Kepler's 3rd Law?
(m plus M)p squared = a cubed
What is Newton's 2nd law?
Force = mass x acceleration
Name the planets in order from the Sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars (Terrestrial) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (Jovian)
What are Galilean Moons of Jupiter, nearest to farthest? In order of size?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (I Eat Green Carrots)

Ganymede (largest in solar system), Callisto (3rd largest in solar system), Io (4th largest in solar system), Europa (6th largest in solar system).
What is the Roche limit?
The Sun has no planets inside this limit. Planets have no natural large moons inside this limit.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Orbital telescopes
advantages- better resolution because no atmosphere

disadvantages- expensive and hard to access for repairs.
What is the magnitude table?
1- 2.5
2- 6.3
3- 16
4- 40
5- 100
What are the two terms for Earth-centered and Sun-centered ?
Geocentric/ Ptalomaic and Heliocentric
What is our modern calendar system?
Gregorian calendar
What is the heaviest part of the comet? is it large or small?
The nucleus, it is small
How many tails on the comet? What are they?
Two tails (one gas, one dust).
When is tide weakest? Strongest?
New Moon, Full Moon
What is Pluto?
A Dwarf Planet
What are light particles called? Does it have continuous energy?
Photons; no.
Describe the inverse relationship between red and blue light and their wavelengths, temperatures, and frequency.
Red photons- longer wavelength, lower temperatures, lower frequency.

Blue photons- shorter wavelength, higher temperatures, higher frequency.
What is the Stefan-Boltzmann Law?
Total Energy Radiated Per Second per Square Meter (Area) is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature:

E = & T to the 4th
Name the phases of the Moon
New Moon, Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Third Quarter, Waning Crescent