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104 Cards in this Set

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precordium
area on anterior chest overlying heart and great vessels
Great vessels
major arteries and veins connected to heart
where is the base found
top of heart
where is the apex found
bottom of heart
what produces apical impulse
apex beating against chest wall
What return unoxgenated venous blood to the right side of the heart?
superior and inferior vena cava
what carries venous blood to lungs
pulmonary arteries
what returns freshly oxygenated blood back to heart
pulmonary veins
pericardium
tough, fibrous, double walled sac
what does the pericardium do?
surrounds and protects the heart
how many layers does the pericardium have?
2
What is between the two layers of the pericardium?
pericardial fluid
What does pericardial fluid ensure?
smooth, friction-free movement of the heart muscle
What is the myocardium?
the muscular wall of heart
What does the myocardium do?
pumping
What is the endocardium?
thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines inner surface of heart chambers and valves
3 layers of heart
pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
what seperates the four chambers?
valves
What is the main purpose of the valves?
prevent backflow into heart
What valves seperate the atrium and and ventricles
AV valves
What is the right AV valve called?
tricuspid
What is the left AV valve called?
bicuspid or mitral
When do AV valves open?
during filling phase (diastole)
When do the AV valves close?
during pumping phase (systole)
What valves are between the ventricles and arteries?
semilunar valves
What is the rhythmic movement of blood through the heart
cardiac cycle
What is the right semilunar valve called?
pulmonic
What is the left semilunar valve called?
aortic
When do the semilunar valves open?
during pumping (systole)
When do the semilunar valves close?
during filling (diastole)
precordium
area on anterior chest overlying heart and great vessels
Great vessels
major arteries and veins connected to heart
where is the base found
top of heart
where is the apex found
bottom of heart
what produces apical impulse
apex beating against chest wall
What return unoxgenated venous blood to the right side of the heart?
superior and inferior vena cava
what carries venous blood to lungs
pulmonary arteries
what returns freshly oxygenated blood back to heart
pulmonary veins
pericardium
tough, fibrous, double walled sac
what does the pericardium do?
surrounds and protects the heart
how many layers does the pericardium have?
2
What is between the two layers of the pericardium?
pericardial fluid
What does pericardial fluid ensure?
smooth, friction-free movement of the heart muscle
What is the myocardium?
the muscular wall of heart
What does the myocardium do?
pumping
first step of blood flow
liver to right atrium
When blood leaves the right atrium what valve does it pass through?
tricuspid
After traveling through tricuspid valve where does blood go?
right ventricle
What valve does blood go through when leaving the right ventricle?
pulmonic valve
After the blood travels through the pulmonic valve where does it go?
pulmonary artery
What does the pulmonary artery do?
delivers unoxygenated blood to lungs
Where does blood go after being oxygenated
travels through pulmonary veins to left atrium
What valve does the blood travel through when leaving the left atrium
mitral valve
After blood goes through the mitral valve, where does it go?
left ventricle
Where does blood go when leaving left ventricle
passes through the aortic valve into aorta
What does the aorta do?
delivers oxygenated blood to body
Two phases of cardiac cycle
diastole and systole
What causes S1?
closure of the AV valves
What does the closure of the AV valves signal?
beginning of systole
Where is S1 the loudest?
at the apex
When does S2 occur?
closure of the semilunar valves
What does the closure of the semilunar valves signal?
end of systole
Where is S2 the loudest?
at the base
what is the modifying factor in the development of cardio. disease?
lifestyle
Examples of lifestyles that increase risk of cardio. disease?
smoking, diet, alcohol use, exercise patterns, stress,
Major risk factors of heart disease?
Hypertension, smoking, high LDLS, obesity, diabetes
What is a characteristic of angina?
clenched fist
What is angina?
chest pain
What is dyspnea?
shortness of breath
What is orthopnea?
the need to assume a more upright position to breathe
What must you note with orthopnea?
exact number of pillows used
When would you see cyanosis or pallor?
MI or low cardiac output
When is edema dependent?
heart failure
CVP
central venous pressure
Where can you assess CVP?
jugular veins
What position in the person in to view CVP?
supine at 30-45 degree angle
What do you look for to judge CVP?
point of maximal fluttering
Where do you put the rulers to assess CVP?
one on point of maximal fluttering and the other on the angle of louis,
When is CVP considered abnormal?
when greater than 3cm
When does abnormal CVP occur?
heart failure
What is a heave or lift?
sustained forceful thrusting of ventricle during systole.
PMI
Point of Maximal Impulse
What is the normal size of the apical impulse
1-2 cm
What is a thrill?
palpable vibration
What does a thrill signify?
turbulent blood flow and accompanies loud murmurs
Where is the aortic valve heard?
2nd right interspace
Where is the pulmonic valve heard?
2nd left interspace
Where is the tricuspid valve heard?
left lower sternal border
Where is the mitral valve heard?
fifth interspace at around midclavicular line
Where is Erbs Point?
3rd IC on left side
What does a pulse deficit signal?
weak contraction of ventricles
How do you assess for pulse deficit?
auscultate the apical and radial pulses
What is a murmur?
blowing, swishing sound occuring with turbulent blood flow
How many grades of a murmur are there?
6
What is grade 1 murmur?
barely audible, quiet room with difficulty
What is a grade 2 murmur
clearly audible, but faint
What is a grade 3 murmur
moderately loud, easy to hear
What is a grade 4 murmur
loud, associated with a thrill palpable to chest wall
What is a grade 5 murmur?
very loud, heard with one corner of steth. lifted off chest wall
What is a grade 6 murmur?
loudest, still heard with entire steth. lifted just off chest wall.
How doe you describe murmur pitch?
high, medium, low
Murmur of mitral stenosis?
rumbling
murmur of aortic stenosis
harsh
When do fetal shunts normally close?
10-15 hours