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99 Cards in this Set

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awake and readily aroused, oriented, fully aware of external and internal stimuli and responds appropriately, conducts meaningful interpersonal interactions
Alert
Not fully alert, drifts off to sleep when not stimulated, can be aroused to name when called i normal voice but looks drowsy, responds appropriately to questions or commands but thinking seems slow and fuzzy, inattentive, loses train of thought, spontaneous movements are decreased
Lethargic
Sleep most of the time, difficult to arouse--needs loud shout or vigorous shake, acts confused when is arounds, converses in monosullables, speech may be mumbled and incoherent, requires constant stimulation for even marginal cooperation
Obtunded
Spontaneously unconscious, responds only to persistent and bigorous shake or pain; has appropriate moto response; otherwise can only groan, mumble, or move restlessly; reflex activity persists
Stupor (Semi-coma)
completely unconscious, no response to pain or to any external or internal stimuli, light coma has some reflex activity but no purposeful movement, deep coma has no motor response
Coma
clouding of consciousness; inattentive; incoherent converstaion; impaired recent memory; often agitated and having visual hallucinations; disoriented, with confusion worse at night when stimuli are decreased
Acute Confusional State (Delirium)
Disorder of voice
Dysphonia
Distorted articulation in voice
dysarthria
language comprehension and production secondary to brain damage
aphasia
most common and sever form; spontaneous speech is absent or reduced to a few stereo-typed words or sounds. Comprehension is absent or reduced
Global aphasia
Expressive. Can understand language but cannot express using language. Nonfluent, dysarthric, and effortful speech
Broca's aphasia
Receptive. Opposite broca's. can hear sounds and words but cannot relate them to previous experiences. speech is fluent, effortless, and well articulated
Wernicke's aphasia
lack of emotional response; no expression of feelings; voice monotonous and face immobile
flat affect (blunted)
sad, gloomy, dejected; symptoms can occur in bad weather, after a holiday or w/ an illness
depression
EBV symptoms
fever
Hepatosplenomegaly
pharyngitis
lymphadenopathy (posterior cervical nodes)
joy and optimism, overconfidence, increased motor activity, not necessarily pathologic
elation
excessive well-being, unusually cheerful or elated, which is inappropriate considering physical and mental condition, implies a pathological mood
euphoria
worried, uneasy, apprehensive from the anticipation of a danger whose source is unknown
anxiety
worried, uneasy, apprehensive; external danger is known and identified
fear
annoyed, easily provoked, impatient
irritability
furious, loss of control
rage
the existence of opposing emotions toward an idea object, person
ambivalence
rapid shift of emotions
lability
affect clearly discordant with the contest of the persons speech
inappropriate affect
sudden interruption in train of thought, unable to complete sentence, seems related to strong emotion
blocking
fabricates events to fill in memory
confabulation
coining a new word; invented word has no real meaning; may condense several words
circumlocution
talks with excessive and unnecessary detail, delays reaching point; sentences have meaningful connection but are irrelevant
circumstantiality
shifting from one topic to an unrelated topic
loosening associations
abrupt change, rapid skipping from top to topic, practically continuous flow of accelerated speech. plays on words
flight of ideas
incoherent mixture of words, phrases, and sentences; illogical, disconnected
word salad
persistent repeating of verbal or motor response, even with varied stimuli
perseveration
imitation, repeats others' words or phrases, often with a mumbling, mocking, or mechanical tone
echolalia
word choice based on sound, not meaning, includes nonsense rhymes and puns
clanging
strong, persistent, irrational fear of an object or situation; feels driven to avoid it
phobia
morbid worrying about own health, feels sick with no actual basis for that assumption
hypochondriasis
unwanted, persistent thoughts or impulses; logic will not purge them from consciousness; experienced as intrusive and senseless
obsession
unwanted, repetitive, purposeful act; driven to do it; behavior thought to neutralize or prevent discomfort or some dreaded event
compulsion
firm, fixed, false beliefs; irrational; person clings to delusion despite objective evidence to contrary
delusions
sensory perceptions for which there are no external stimuli
hallucination
misperception of an actual existing stimulus
illusion
disturbance of consciousness, change in cognition, develops over short period of time; can be substance induced
delirium
memory impairment, aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, impairment of occupational or social functioning
dementia
memory impairment, impairment in social or occupational functioning; may be due to pathology
amnestic disorder
ingestion of substance produces maladaptive behavior changes because of effect on CNS
intoxication
daily use needed to functions, inability to stop, impaired social and occupational functioning, recurrent use when it is physically hazardous
abuse
physiologic dependence on substance
dependence
requires increased amount of substance to produce same effect
tolerance
cessation of substance produces a syndrome of physiologic symptoms
withdrawal
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and catatonic behavior, social/occupational dysfunction, lasts at least 6 months
schizophrenia
depressed mood, diminished interest/pleasure, weight loss, insomnia, psychomotor agitation, fatigue, worthless feeling, decreased ability to think, thoughts of death
major depressive episode
persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood; inflated self-esteem, grandiosity, decreased sleep, talkative, etc
manic episode
one or more depressive episodes
major depressive disorder
at least 2 years of depressed mood for more days than not
dysthymic disorder
one or more manic episodes usually accompanied by major depressive episodes
bipolar disorder
intense fear or discomfort; pounding heart, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, dizzy, chills, etc
panic attack
anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult; situations are avoided
agoraphobia
recurrent panic attacks, concern about having additional attacks, change in behavior, agoraphobia possible
panic disorder
fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by a specific object or situation
specific phobia
fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed unfamiliar people or scrutiny by others
social phobia
has obsessions or compulsions
obsessive-compulsive disorder
exposed to a traumatic event which alters mood and is reexperienced; increased arousal
post-traumatic stress disorder
excessive anxiety and worrying occurring more days than not for at least 6 months; cant control worry
generalized anxiety disorder
weight in lbs
--------------------------------- x 703
height in (in) squared
BMI
waist circumference
-----------------------------
hip circumference
waist-to-hip ration (measured in inches)
deficiency in growth hormone in childhood, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency
hypopituitary dwarfism
excessive secretion of growth hormone; increased height and weight and delayed sexual development
gigantism
excessive secretion of growth hormone in adulthood; overgrowth of bone in face, head, hands, and feet; but no change in height. internal organ also enlarged
acromegaly (hyperpituitarism)
congenital skeletal malformation caused by a genetic disorder in converting cartilage to bone; large head, short stature, and short limbs
achondroplastic dwarfism
tall, thin stature, arachnodactyly, hyper-extensible joints, longer arm span than height
marfan's syndrome
weight gain and edema with central trunk and cervical obesity, round face
endogenous obesity-- syndrome
<95/60
hypotension
120-139/80-89
prehypertension
140-159/90-99
stage 1 hypertension
>/=160/>=100
stage 2 hypertension
smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, >60y/o, male, family history of cvd of female <65 or male <55
risk stratification
80%-90% of ideal weight
mild malnutrition
70%-80% of ideal weight
moderate malnutrition
<70% of ideal weight
severe malnutrtion
current weight
-------------------- x 100
ideal weight
percent ideal body weight
current weight
-------------------- x 100
usual weight
percent usual body weight
85%-95% of usual body weight
mild malnutrition
75%-84% of usual body weight
moderate malnutrition
<75% of usual body weight
severe malnutrition
usual weight-current weight
-------------------------------------- x 100
usual weight
recent weight change
>5% weight loss over 1 month
>7.5% weight loss over 3 months
>10% weight loss of 6 months
clinically significant weight loss
>35 in women
>40 in men
Waist Circumference
>/= 1.0 in men
>/=0.8 in women
waist to hip ratio of risk
weights more than 20% above ideal body weight
bmi=30
obese
at or more than 100% above ideal body weight
morbidly obese
protein-calorie malnutrition--inadequate intake of protein and calories or prolonged starvation
</=80% ideal weight
marasmum
protein malnutrition--diets may be high in calories but little or no protein
>/=100% ideal weight
kwashiorkor
prolonged inadequate intake of protein and calories
</=70% idea weight
marasmum/kwashiorkor mix
pigmented keratotic scaling lesions resulting from niacin deficiency
pellagra
dry, bumpy skin associated with vitamin A and/or linoleic acid deficiency
follicular hyperkeratosis
deficiency of vitamin C. swollen, ulcerated, and bleeding gums
scorbutic gums
foamy plaques of the cornea; sign of vitamin A deficiency
bitot's spots
vitamin D and calcium deficiencies in children and adults
rickets
riboflavin deficiency
magenta tongue