Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/111

Click to flip

111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ASSESSMENT
a broad term defined as a process for obtaining information that is used for making decisions about students; curricula, programs, and schools; and educational policy.
WHAT IS ASSESSMENT?
assessment techniques include: paper and pencil tests; formal and informal observation; homework, exercises, and research papers; projects and exhibits; performances; portfolios; oral questioning; and analysis of student records.
TEST
an instrument or systematic procedure for observing and describing one or more characteristics of a student using either a numerical scale or a classification scheme. Tests can be for individual students or for surveying schools or nations. Narrower than assessment. EX. KCCT
MEASUREMENT
a procedure for assigning numbers (usually called scores).
EVALUATION
the process of making a value judgement about hte worth of a student's product or performance. Evaluations may or may not be based on information obtained from tests and other assessments.
FORMATIVE EVALUATION
judgments about the quality of students' achievement while they are stil in the process of learning and are made so we can guide their learning.
SUMMATIVE EVALUATION
judgments about the quality of students' achievement after instruction is complete and are made so we can report their achievement to parents and school authorities.
NCLB
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a federally funding law that uses accountability testing to hold states responsible for students' achievement of the state's content and performance standards. Serious consequences.
HIGH-STAKES ASSESSMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Schools must make adequate yearly progress toward the goal of 100% of students achieving at or above proficient levels on the state's standards by 2014.
HIGH-STAKES ASSESSMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY
The NCLB requires that at least 95% of students with disabilities or limited English proficiency be administered assessments and be included in state's results that are reported to the federal govt. (Causes great gaps)
WHAT ARE THE HIGH-STAKES SANCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NCLB? (Failure to make adequate yearly progress after 2 years) 1-4
1. Parents may choose to have their children attend another school in the district that is making AYP.
2. The school staff may be replaced.
3. A new curriculum may be implemented.
4. The authority of the administrative staff of the school may be changed.
WHAT ARE THE HIGH-STAKES SANCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NCLB? (Failure to make adequate yearly progress after 2 years) 5-8
5. The school year may be extended.
6. The school may be reorganized.
7. The state may contract w/a private company to run the school.
8. The school may be taken over by the state.
LEARNING TARGETS (OBJECTIVES)
Specifies what you would like them to achieve when they have completed an instructional segment.
LEARNING TARGETS (OBJECTIVES)
States what students should be able to do, value, or feel after you have taught them.
LEARNING TARGETS (OBJECTIVES)
Learning targets are important b/c specifying them helps you direct your teaching toward the important student achievements that you, the school, and the parents have in mind.
LEARNING TARGETS (OBJECTIVES)
Can be
1. Cognitive (thinking)
2. Affective (feelings, attitudes, values, morals)
3. Psychomotor (physical)
IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING TARGETS (OBJECTIVES)
1. Planning assessment procedures is easy & more valid
2. Selecting & crafting assessment procedures depend on your knowing which specific achievements you should assess.
3. Evaluating an existing assessment procedure you already crafted is easier when you know the specific learning targets.
4. Properly judging the content relevance of an assessment procedure requires you to know the specific achievements you should assess.
BLOOM'S TAXONOMY
1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation
KNOWLEDGE
involves the recall of specifics, methods, procedures, patterns, structures, or setting.
KNOWLEDGE VERBS
Recall, List, Count, Define, Describe, Draw, Identify, Label, Match, Name, Recite, Tell
COMPREHENSION
represents the lowest level of understanding. The student knows what is being said and can make use of the material w/o necassarily relating it to other material or seeing the big picture.
COMPREHENSION VERBS
Explain, Compare, Contrast, Demonstrate, Discuss, Extend, Identify, Illustrate, Interpret, Outline, Paraphrase, Predict, Report, Restate, Review, Summarize, Tell, Conclude, Generalize
APPLICATION
Using what they know and applying it to new situations.
APPLICATION VERBS
Apply, Build, Change, Choose, Construct, Compute, Develop, Dramatize, Interview, Model, Organize, Plan, Prepare, Produce, Role-Play, Select, Show, Solve, Transfer, Use, Relate
ANALYSIS
To examine and breakdown information into parts by identifying motives or causes. To make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations.
ANALYSIS VERBS
Analyze, Characterize, Classify, Compare, Contrast, Dissect, Divide, Discover, Examine, Distinguish, Relationships, Inference, Simplify, Assumption, Differentiate, Diagram, Discriminate, Research, Separate, Relate, Outline
SYNTHESIS
The putting together of elements and parts to forma a whole. Working with pieces, parts, elements, etc. and arranging and combining them in such a way as to constitute a patter or structure not clearly there before.
SYNTHESIS VERBS
Build, Combine, Compile, Compose, Construct, Create, Design, Develop, Estimate, Formulate, Imagine, invent, Originate, Plan, Predict, propose, Solve, Solution, Modify, Change, improve, Adapt, minimize, maximize, Theorize, Elaborate, Test, Improve,
EVALUATION
Judgments about the value of material and methods for given purposes. To present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria.
EVALUATION VERBS
Award, Criticize, Determine, Judge, Dispute, Justify, Evaluate, Defend, Recomment, Compare, Rate, Appraise, prioritize, Criteria, Value, Support, Explain, Assess
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
1. Increses the qaulity of teaching decisions. Better able to monitor and evaluate their progress. Allows you to better plan teaching.
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
2. Communicate what you value in a powerful way.
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
3. Claryifies what you want students to learn. You learn how to create situations in which students can demonstrate their achievement.
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
4. You use your knowledge of how to craft quality assessment tasks when you evaluate assessment materials available from other resources.
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
5. Increases your freedom to design lessons. You can use a wider variety of teaching strategies b/c you are able to assess students using your own assessment procedures.
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
6. You will improve the validity of your interpretations and uses of assessment results.
BENEFITS OF CRAFTING YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT TASKS
7. You will improve your appreciation of the strengths and limitations of each type of assessment procedure.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS (record the results of these assessments to help your memory; however, you do not use them to report official letter grades or achievement progress).
3. Helps you guide or monitor student learning while it is still in progress.
2. High-quality formative assessment and feedback increases student learning.
3. Less formal
PURPOSES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS
1. Sizing-Up (forming initial impressions of students' strengths, weaknesses, learning characteristics, and personalities - pre-tests).
2. Diagnosing Individual students' learning needs
3. Diagnosing the group's learning needs.
4. Providing specific feedback.
5. Planning instructioinal uses to design & implement appropriate learning & instructional activities.
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
1. Helps you evaluate your students and your own teaching after you finish teaching one or more units.
2. Often we use summative information to count toward a grade for a marking period.
PURPOSES OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS
1. Assigning grades
2. Placing students into remedial and advanced courses.
3. Evaluating one's own teaching
VALIDITY
The soundness of your interpretations and uses of students' assessment results; the extent to which assessment information is appropriate for making the desired decision about students or instruction; the most important characteristic of assessment information.
HOW TO MAINTAIN VALIDITY WHEN GRADING STUDENT WORK
1. Align assessmentS w/curriculum, standards, and instruction.
2. Assess only important learning targets.
3. Use appropriate multiple assessment formats.
4. Make assessments understandable.
5. Follow appropriate validity criteria.
6. Use appropriate length
7. Ensure equivalence across years.
8. Ensure appropriate difficulty and complexity.
SHORT ANSWER
Requires students to respond with a word, short phrase, number or symbol.
SHORT ANSWER
More objective than essay or open response, but are not free of subjectivity in scoring.
SHORT ANSWER
Chances of students randomly guessing the correct answer is much less than on a T/F or a M/C item.
HIGH-QUALITY SHORT ANSWER CHECKLIST 1-2
1. Assesses the learning targets.
2. The item matches the assessment plan in terms of performance, emphasis, and number of points.
HIGH-QUALITY SHORT ANSWER CHECKLIST 3-5
3. The item is written in a question format.
4. The item is worded clearly so that the correct answer is a brief phrase, single word, or single number.
5. The blank is toward the end of the sentence.
HIGH-QUALITY SHORT ANSWER CHECKLIST 6-9
6. Do not comply statements from texts verbatum
7. Omit important words not trivial words.
8. Limit blanks to one or two
9. Attend to length and arrangement of blank.
TRUE/FALSE
Consists of a statement that must be judged as true or false.
CRITICISMS OF TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Used to assess specific, trivial facts
2. Ambiguously worded
3. Answered correctly by blind guessing
4. Partial knowledge
TRUE/FALSE
1. Make sure the item is definitely true or definitely false.
2. If you must use a negative function word, be sure to use all capital letters (NOT)
3. Do not use verbal clues that give away the answer, particularly specific determiners (always, never, every, often, usually, frequently)
TRUE/FALSE
CAN ASSESS MORE THAN RECALL
1. Generalizations
2. Comparisons
3. Relationships between two events, concepts facts for principles
4. Prediction
5. Steps
6. Explanations for why phenomena occurred
MULTIPLE-CHOICE
Among objective type of items, the M/C item is considered the most highly valued, applicable, and versatile.
MULTIPLE-CHOICE
1. Versatility
2. Reduction of bluffing
3. Reduce chances of blind guessing
4. Focus on reading and thinking, not writing
MULTIPLE-CHOICE FORMAT

STEM
Asks a question, sets the task to be performed, or state the problems to be solved
MULTIPLE-CHOICE FORMAT

RESPONSES
Suggest answers to the question or problem specified by the stem. One alternative is usally the correct or best answer.
PURPOSE OF DISTRACTORS
To appear plausible to students who do not possess sufficient knowledge to select the correct alternative.
CRAFTING MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Write as a direct question
2. If you use an incomplete sentence, be sure it implies a direct question.
3. Control the wording so that vocabulary and sentence structure are non-technical
4. For definition testing, place the word or term in the stem.
CRAFTING MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
5. Strive to create 3-5 functional alternatives (no deadwood)
6. All alternatives should be appropriate to the stem
7. Put repeated words and phrases in the stem
8. Arrange alternatives in a list format, rather than tandem
9. All distractors should be grammatically correct with respect to the stem.
ASSESSING HIGHER-ORDER THINKING
1. The assessment materials should be new or novel to the student. They should not repeat the specific examples you used during instruction and should be phrased in a language different from what you used in teaching.
ASSESSING HIGHER-ORDER THINKING
YOU MUST USE NOVEL MATERIAL TO ASSESS HIGHER ORDER THINKING.
CONTEXT-DEPENDENT ITEMS
(Assessing HOT)
Consists of introductory materials followed by several items. Sometimes called interpretive exercises.
CONTEXT-DEPENDENT ITEMS
(Assessing HOT)
Introductory material may be extracts from: reading materials, pictures, graphs, drawings, paragraphs, poems, formulas, tables of numbers, lists of words or symbols, spcimens, maps, films, and sound recordings.
CONCEPTS & SCHEMATA
Concepts are related to each other in complex ways through schemate or networks. It is the way knowledge is represented in our minds through networks of connected concepts, information, rules, and conditions for actions.
3 LEVELS OF ASSESSMENT OF CONCEPTS
1. Give the name
2. Exemplars from nonexemplars
3. Produce a new example
ASSESSING DEFINED CONCEPT LEARNING
1. Produce a definition
2. Produce examples
3. Identify exemplars and nonexemplars of a concept
4. Identify concepts and state the relationships among them
ASSESSING PROBLEM SOLVING
(HOT)
I identify the problem
D define & represent the
problem
E explore possible strategies
A act on the strategies
L Look back and evaluate the
effects of your activities
CRITICAL THINKING (HOT)
The ability to use reasonable, reflective and effective thinking processes to decide what to do or believe.
CRITICAL THINKING (HOT)
* Reasonable thinking
* Reflective thinking
* Focused thinking
* Deciding what to believe or
do
* Abilities & dispositions
(habits of mind)
CRITICAL THINKING (HOT)
To assess CT you must assess both the dispositon toward using CT and the ability to apply CT skills in appropriate ways.
ASSESSING OTHER HOT SKILLS
* Using reference materials
(including the Internet)
* Graphs and table reading
abilities
* Map-reading skills
* Reading skills
* Enhanced multiple choice
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
* Presents a task requiring
students to do an activity
that requires applying
their knowledge and skills
from several learning
targets.
* Uses clearly defined
criteria to evaluate how
well the student has
achieved this application.
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
* Not for every learning target.
* Simple learning targets
require simple assessment
formats; complex learning
targets require complex
assessments.
ASSESSING HIGHER-ORDER THINKING
1. The assessment materials should be new or novel to the student. They should not repeat the specific examples you used during instruction and should be phrased in a language different from what you used in teaching.
ASSESSING HIGHER-ORDER THINKING
YOU MUST USE NOVEL MATERIAL TO ASSESS HIGHER ORDER THINKING.
CONTEXT-DEPENDENT ITEMS
(Assessing HOT)
Consists of introductory materials followed by several items. Sometimes called interpretive exercises.
CONTEXT-DEPENDENT ITEMS
(Assessing HOT)
Introductory material may be extracts from: reading materials, pictures, graphs, drawings, paragraphs, poems, formulas, tables of numbers, lists of words or symbols, spcimens, maps, films, and sound recordings.
CONCEPTS & SCHEMATA
Concepts are related to each other in complex ways through schemate or networks. It is the way knowledge is represented in our minds through networks of connected concepts, information, rules, and conditions for actions.
3 LEVELS OF ASSESSMENT OF CONCEPTS
1. Give the name
2. Exemplars from nonexemplars
3. Produce a new example
ASSESSING DEFINED CONCEPT LEARNING
1. Produce a definition
2. Produce examples
3. Identify exemplars and nonexemplars of a concept
4. Identify concepts and state the relationships among them
ASSESSING PROBLEM SOLVING
(HOT)
I identify the problem
D define & represent the
problem
E explore possible strategies
A act on the strategies
L Look back and evaluate the
effects of your activities
CRITICAL THINKING (HOT)
The ability to use reasonable, reflective and effective thinking processes to decide what to do or believe.
CRITICAL THINKING (HOT)
* Reasonable thinking
* Reflective thinking
* Focused thinking
* Deciding what to believe or
do
* Abilities & dispositions
(habits of mind)
CRITICAL THINKING (HOT)
To assess CT you must assess both the dispositon toward using CT and the ability to apply CT skills in appropriate ways.
ASSESSING OTHER HOT SKILLS
* Using reference materials
(including the Internet)
* Graphs and table reading
abilities
* Map-reading skills
* Reading skills
* Enhanced multiple choice
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
* Presents a task requiring
students to do an activity
that requires applying
their knowledge and skills
from several learning
targets.
* Uses clearly defined
criteria to evaluate how
well the student has
achieved this application.
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
* Not for every learning target.
* Simple learning targets
require simple assessment
formats; complex learning
targets require complex
assessments.
PERFORMANCE TASKS
An assessment activity that requires a student to demonstrate her achievement by producing an extended written or spokin answer, by engaging in group or individual activities, or by creating a specific product.
PERFORMANCE TASKS
* Students are required to directly demonstrate their achievement.
* May assess the product or process or both.
TYPES OF PERFORMANCE TASKS
A. Structured, on-demand tasks for individual students, groups, or both
1. Paper-and-pencil tasks
2. Tasks requiring
equipment and
resources beyond paper
and pencil
*OR - more than one correct performance
* Closed response (only one best or correct answer)
TYPES OF PERFORMANCE TASKS
B. Naturally occuring or typical performance tasks (observe and assess students in natural settings (classroom, playground, cafeteria)
TYPES OF PERFORMANCE TASKS
C. Longer-term projects for individual students, groups, or both
TYPES OF PERFORMANCE TASKS
D. Portfolios
1. Best works portfolios
2. Growth and learning-
progress portfolios
TYPES OF PERFORMANCE TASKS
E. Demonstrations
F. Experiments
G. Oral presentations and
dramatizations (plays, interviews, speeches, oral presentations)
TYPES OF PERFORMANCE TASKS
H. Simulations and contrived
dramatizations
ANALYTIC SCORING RUBRICS
Requires you to evaluate specific dimensions, traits, or elements of a student's response. (scoring key, point scale)
ANALYTIC SCORING RUBRICS
Requires that you list the major criteria of good work (sometimes called dimensions or traits) and prepare a rubric for each of these criteria. You decide the number of points to award to students for each criterion. The scales may be of equal weight or one or more of the aspects is worth more points.
HOLISTIC SCORING RUBRICS
Requires you to make a judgment about the overall quality of each student's response.
HOLISTIC SCORING RUBRICS
Appropriate for extended response subject-matter essays or papers involving a student's abilities to synthesize and create when no single description of good work can be prespecified. No specific feedback based on criteria.
ANNOTATED HOLISTIC SCORING RUBRIC
A hybrid of the analytic and holistic. Uses holistic scoring but adds feedback to students on a few of the traits in a way similar to the analytic scoring.
DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT
Purposes:
1. to identify which learning targets a student has not mastered.
2. to suggest possible causes or reasons why the student has not mastered the learning targets.
DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT
(ROLE IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS)
To provide information for the improvement of teaching and learning.
SIX APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING PROBLEMS
1. Profiling content areas strengths and weaknesses. A deficit is defined as a student's low standing, relative to peers, in a broad learning outcome area in a subject. A serious weakness to this approach is that it does not provide information as to why students err.
SIX APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING PROBLEMS
2. The prerequisite knowledge and skills deficits apprach. Deficit is defined as a student's failure to have learned concepts and skills necessary to profit from instruction in a course or a unit. (Gagne's Learning Hierarchy)
SIX APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING PROBLEMS
3. Identifying objectives not mastered. Centers on assessment on the important, specific targets students are expected to learn. You assess only the objectives that are the outcomes of the unit or course, not the prerequisite objectives. Weakness - little or no info is given about how to remediate the deficits discovered. It is not fully diagnostic.
SIX APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING PROBLEMS
4. Identifying students' errors. The goal is to identify a student's errors, rather than simply making a master-nonmastery decision about the student's overall performance on a particular behavioral objective. Consider every error a student makes as having some systematic cause. They are never careless errors. Interviews are best.
SIX APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING PROBLEMS
5. Knowledge Structure
Approach
Deficit is defined as a student's inappropriate or incorrect mental organization of concepts and their interrelationships. Focuses on how a student thinks about the concepts and their interrelationships. (Concept Map)
SIX APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING PROBLEMS
6. Component Competencies of Problem Solving Approach. A deficit is defined as a student's inability to perform one or more of the componenets necessary to solve a word problem.
STANDARDIZED TESTS
These tests are designed to be administered, scored, and interpreted in a standard way across many classrooms and schools.
BENEFITS OF KNOWING RESULTS
Gives us Goals