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52 Cards in this Set

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What are injectable general anesthetics used for?
Induction for intubation and maintenance on gas. Induction and maintenance by repeated injection.
What are three classes of injectable general anesthetics?
Cyclohexamines, Substituted phenols, barbituates.
What's a disadvantage with using cyclohexamines?
Induce seizures in dogs and horses.
What type of action do cyclohexamines have?
Cause dissociative anesthesia or catalepsy. Selective CNS stimulation, disruption of nerve pathways in brain. Perception & awareness is scrambled.
Do cyclohexamines cause CNS stimulation or depression?
Stimulation
What are some characteristics of cyclohexamines?
Exaggerated reflexes, presistent laryngeal reflexes, sensitive to light,sound&touch, increased muscle tone, apneustic respiration, hypersalivation, tachycardia, eyes stay open, pupil central & dilated.
What is apneustic respiration?
Breath holding after inspiration; quick expiratory phase.
What type of analgesia do cyclohexamines provide?
Good skin & limb analgesia, but poor visceral.
What are some contraindications for cyclohexamines?
Dogs or horses w/out tranq, seizure disorder or history, renal dz or blockage, hepatic disease in dogs, procedures involving CNS.
Do cyclohexamines cause tachycardia and/or increased blood pressure?
Yes
What should you avoid doing to a patient when using cyclohexamines?
Stimulate them, they're sensitive to light, sound & touch.
Why is it difficult to determmine anesthetic depth when using cyclohexamines?
The animals reflexes are exaggerated.
What do you need to be aware of during recovery when using cyclohexamines?
Avoid stimulation, hallucinatory behavior possible, monitor closely to prevent self-injury.
What's a symptoms of cyclohexamine overdose?
Seizures.
What are 3 types of cyclohexamines?
Ketamine, Tiletamine, TKX
What's the most commonly used cyclohexamine?
Ketamine
How do you administer ketamine?
IV only in dogs. IV in cats, possible IM or orally
What do you need to be careful about when administering ketamine.
Give the correct dose. IM dose given IV can lead to serious overdose and/or death.
How is ketamine eliminated from the body?
Renal (kidney) in cats.
Hepatic (liver) in dogs.
What other type of drug is commonly used with ketamine?
Acepromazine, diazepam, xylazine.
What is always given with tiletamine?
Zolazepam (Telazol)
What form does tiletamine come in?
It's a powder.
Does Tiletamine have a long or short shelf life?
Short, 4 day room temp, 14 day refrigerated.
How is Tiletamine eliminated?
Hepatic metabolism & renal excretion.
What's significant about recovery from tiletamine?
It may be long & difficult in some animals.
What is in TKX?
Telazol/xylazine/ketamine.
Are cyclohexamines controlled drugs?
Yes
What's an example of a substitued phenol?
Propofol
How is propofol given?
IV only. IV drip, or injections every 3-5 mns for maintenance.
What are some characteristics of propofol.
Can support bacterial growth, 6 hr ref. shelf life, slow injection, milky oil-in-water emulsion.
Is the recovery from propofol short of fast?
Very fast, thru redistribution & metabolism.
What are 4 reasons for using barbiturates?
Induction, maintenance, anticonvulsant, euthanasia.
Are substituted phenols controlled drugs?
No
What should you do with barbiturates after you've reconstituted them?
Refrigerate. Discard if cloudiness or crystallization occurs.
Are barbiturates a good analgesia?
No
How do barbiturates work?
They cause dose dependant CNS depression. Sedation-anesthesia-coma-death.
How are barbiturates elimated from the body?
First by redistrubtion to fat, but repeated doses saturate the fat-cleared by liver metabolism-prolonged recovery.
What may cause higher percentages of barbiturates in the animals blood?
Animal is acidotic (shock, renal failure), plasma protein is low.
What route are barbiturates given?
IV only
How do you administer barbiturates?
Titrate to effect.
What does titrate mean?
Give 1/2 of dose, then 1/2 of remainder and so on.
What can happen if barbiturates are not administered IV?
Tissue necrosis and sloughing.
What should you do if barbiturates are administered perivascularly?
Inject sterile saline SQ in site.
What are some common side effects when using barbiturates?
Post-induction apnea, transient post-induction arrhythmias, sensitize heart to arrhythmic effect of epinephrine.
What are some contraindications to barbiturates?
Cardiovascular or resp. dz, acidosis, CNS depression, thin, or in poor nutritional condition, sighthounds, fearful or agitated animals, geriatrics, neonates, c-sections.
What are 2 types of barbiturates?
Thiopental, Pentobarbital.
Are barbiturates contolled drugs?
Yes
Is thiopental ultrashort or intermediate acting?
Ultrashort.
Which is more commonly used thiopental or pentobarbital?
Thiopental.
Is pentobarbital ultrashort or intermediate acting?
Intermediate
When would you use pentobarbital?
When you have a seizuring animal & diazepam is ineffective.
Is pentobarbital used for surgery?
No longer very common.