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10 Cards in this Set

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What are aims and what should they state?
The stated intention of a study. They should state the precise area of the study and what the study is actually trying to achieve.
What is a hypothesis and what are the different types of hypotheses?
A hypothesis is a prediction or testable statement which a researcher aims to test to see if it is supported or rejected.

The types of hypotheses are; the research hypothesis, the alternative/experimental hypothesis, the null hypothesis.
What is a research hypothesis?
A general prediction made at the beginning of a study e.e short term memory declines with age
What is an experimental/alternative hypothesis?
the operational statement of of the research hypothesis. It states the precise behaviours or responses that are going to be used to measure the variable under investigation. e.g. digit span for numbers in people over 70 years of age is sorter than the digit span for numbers in people under 20 years of age.
What is a null hypothesis?
"a hypothesis of no differences" e.g. there is no difference in the digit span for numbers in people over 70 years and in people under 20 years of age.
What is a directional (one tailed)hypothesis?
When the hypothesis predicits the expected direction of the result. E.g. there is a positive correlation between height and weight or school children who eat breakfast do better at school that those who don't.
What is a non-directional (two tailed) hypothesis?
When the hypothesis just says that there will be a difference or a correlation but does not predicit the direction. E.g. Dogs and cats differ in how quickly they learn a maze or there is a correlation between exam results and hours spent watching tv.
What is a variable
Something that alters when we are conducting research. In experimental research a variable is deliberately altered by the researcher so that the effects on another variable can be measured.
What is an independant variable (IV) and a dependant variable (DV)?
IV - A variable that is mannipulated in research.
DV - A variable which is measured.
What is a confounding variable?

What is a co-variable?
It is anything which may unintentionally affect the dependant variable in the research being carried out.

co-variable - when you conduct a correlational anaylsis there is no IV or DV - the variables are called co-variables