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84 Cards in this Set

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4 Reasons to use preanesthetic drugs.
To calm or sedate (smooth induction & recovery), reduce or eliminate adverse effects of gen anes., reduce the amt of gen anes. required, decrease pain during & after surgery.
What's an anticholinergic?
They are drugs used to decrease parasympathetic responses produced by anesthetic drugs.
What does the autonomic nervous sytem control?
The involuntary bodily functions (heart, breathing, pupil dilation).
What are the two systems of the autonomic nervous system?
Parasympathetic & sympathetic
What is the synapse?
The space between nerve ending and the receptor.
What is the receptor?
The site stimulated to respond when it receives neurotransmitter from nerve ending (muscles, nerves, glands).
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical that is released from nerve endings and travels across synapse, stimilating receptor.
What response does the parasympathetic nervous system produce?
The 'all OK-relax' response to situations.
What response does the sympathetic nervous system produce?
The 'fight or flight' response to situations.
What are some parasympathetic responses?
Increase in saliva & tear production, pupils contract, HR slows, decrease blood pressure, bronchi constrict, increase GI motility and secretions.
What are some sympathetic responses?
Decrease saliva & tear production, pupil dilate, HR speeds up, Increase blood pressure, bronchi dilate, decrease GI motility & secreations.
What does -ergic mean?
Does the work of, stimulates.
What does -mimetic mean?
Mimics, has a similar effect.
What does -lytic mean?
Prevents, tears down the effect of.
What are Anticholinergic (parasympathetic) drugs used for?
To prevent hypersalivation and bradycardia.
Two types of anticholinergic drugs.
Atropine, Glycopyrrolate.
Do anticholinergic drugs have a sedative effect?
Not at the therapeutic doses.
What's another term for anticholinergic drugs?
Parasympatholytic drugs.
What are some precautions to consider with atropine?
Markedly reduce tear secretions, avoid in animals with pre-existing rapid HR, produce thick mucous airway secretions, crosses placental barrier.
What are some signs of an atropine overdose?
Tachycardia, peripheral vasodilation (red as a beet), dry MM/thirst, hyperthermia, excitement, dilated pupils.
What's the difference between glycopyrrolate & atropine?
It costs more, has a longer duration, milder effects and doesn't cross the placental barrier.
What do you use sedatives/tranquilizers for?
Calming effect, smooth induction & recovery, reduced amt of general anes. required, prevent excitatory effects of some anesthetics in some species.
What are 3 types of sedatives/tranquilizers?
Phenothiazines (acepromazine), Benzodiazepines (diazepam, midazolam, zolazepam), Alpha-2 Agonists (Xylazine, medetomidine).
What is the most commonly used preanesthetic used in vet medicine?
What are some advantages for using acepromazine?
Not controlled, sedation lasts 2-8hrs IM, Antiemtic, Antiarrythmic(protects heart against arrhymthic effects of epinephrine & some anes drugs.
What are some precautions to take with acepromazine?
No analgesic effect, prolapse of third eyelid, vasodilation (avoid in hypotensive pt), lower seizure threshold.
What routes is acepromazine delivered?
IM, SC, Oral, IV-with caution. Onset is 15 mn IM.
What are some advantages to using benzodiazepine?
Mild calming effect, excellent muscle relaxation, prevent seizures, minimal cardiac & respiratory depression.
What should you be careful about when using benzodiazepine?
It may cause excitement when used alone.
What do you usually use benzodiazepines with?
Usually used with induction agents.
what are 3 of the benzodiazepine drugs?
Diazepam, Midazolam & Zolazepam.
What drug is benzodiazepine usually mixed with?
What route is diazepam administered?
IV or oral tablet.
How is midazolam administered?
IM - it's water soluble.
What do you usually combine zolazepam with?
Tiletamine in telazol.
How is zolazepam administered?
IM - it's a powder, must be reconstituted.
What is the benzodiazepine of choice (usually)?
What are some advantages of Alpha-2 Agonists?
Potent sedation, good muscle relaxation, effective analgesia, reversible, not controlled.
What precautions should you be concerned about with Alpha-2 Agonists?
Use only in young, healthy pts(~cardiovascular effects), use w/atropine to prevent bradycardia, can be absorbed thru skin & MM, analgesia wears off before sedation, emesis of 50% of dogs and 90% of cats, ~bloat-avoid in GDV risks.
What are some contraindications of Alpha-2 Agonists?
Pediatric, geriatric, pregnant, sick, cardiovascular or respiratory disease, diabetes, GI obstruction.
What are 2 types of Alpha-2 Agonists?
Xylanine (Rompun, Anased), Medetomidine (Domitor).
What are two types of Xylazine?
Rompun, Anased.
What's the reversing agent for Xylazine?
Yohimbine - administered IV.
Which route is medatomidine administered?
IV or IM.
Which has a longer duration xylazine or medetomidine?
Which drug can have a sudden arousal, xylazine or medetomidine?
What's the reversing agent for medetomidine?
Atipamezole - administered IM.
What's something to keep in mind when reversing Alpha-2 agonists?
It doesn't reverse other drugs given concurrently, which could lead to unwanted side effects.
What are some advantages of Opioids?
Most effective analegesia known, potent sedation, reversible, wide safety margin.
What are some disadvantages of Opioids?
Respiratory depression at high doses, some of excitatory in cats & horses, can cause histamine release if given IV, GI clearing effects (D, emesis).
What are some precautions you should take with opioids?
Usually use with atropine, used with tranquilizer in cats & horses, use IV with caution in dogs, avoid in cats.
How do opioids work?
They mimic the effects of endorphins on the brain and spinal cord receptors.
What's a pure agonists?
It stimulates all 4 types of receptors.
Examples of pure agonists?
Morphine, oxomorphone, fentanyl & hydromorphone.
What's a mixed agonists?
Stimulates some types of receptors & blocks others.
Examples of mixed agonists?
What's a pure antagonists?
It blocks all types of receptors.
Examples of a pure antagonists?
Nalaxone & Nalorphine.
What are the 4 Opioid receptors & effects?
Kappa, Mu, Sigma, Delta.
What does the Kappa receptor affect?
Cardiovascular stimulation.
What does the Mu receptor effect?
Euphoria/ CV depression.
What does the Sigma receptor effect?
What does the Delta receptor effect?
Motor dysfunction
What are some signs of opioid overdose?
Profound resp depression, bradycardia, extreme sedation/excitement, pinpoint pupil (dogs), dilated pupil (cats), facial swelling/hypotension due to histamine release, excessive salivation.
What route is Morphine administered?
SC, PO, Slow IV (dogs only), IM (painful).
What do you usually mix morphine with?
What are some disadvantages to using morphine?
Vomiting/defecation may occur.
What route is Oxymorphone administered?
IV, IM, SC (cats), epidural.
What are some side effects of Oxymorphone?
GI, hypotension.
What has a longer duration, morphine or oxymorphone?
What route is hydromophone admisistered?
IV, IM, SC (both dogs & cats).
Side effects of hydromorphone.
Similar to morphine, resp depression, bradycardia, vomiting, panting, excessive sedation, excitement.
How is Fentanyl administered?
Transdermal patch.
What is Fentanyl used for?
Postoperative analgesic.
What are 2 types of Butorphanol?
Torbugesic (IM, SC-analgesic)
Torbutrol (PO-cough suppressant)
What route are antagonists administered?
Sublingual (neonates), IV
What's the duration for morphine?
About 2 hours.
What is the duration for oxymorphone?
4 hours.
What are antagonists also referred to as?
Nalorphine is ____% antagonistic?
Naloxone is _____% antagonists?
Which has a faster onset for atrophine, SC or IM
IM -10-15 mns vs. SC 20 mn.
What's the most commonly used preanesthetic sedative used in vet med?
How long are the analgesic and sedation effect for xylazine?
Analgesia - 20 mns, sedation is up to several hours.