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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
*The process of judging the quality of a pupil's performance is called GRADING. What is the SINGLE most important charactristic?
*DEPENDENCE on TEACHER judgment-- which is always subjective to some degree.
*Why is grading a difficult task for most teachers?
*Because they usually have had little formal training in grading, have to make judgments w/incomplete evidence, conflicting classroom roles, can't allow perceptions of pupil to affect SUBJECT MATTER GRADE,, & no universally accepted grading strategy.
*In grading, what is the teacher's primary aims?
*To be Fair to All Pupils and to Reflect pupils' Subject Matter learning.
*What is the main purpose of a report card?
*report card: To communicate info @ PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT
*What are the four ish functions of GRADES?
*GRADES four ish functions:
*All grades represent what comparison?
*All grades represent Comparison of pupil perf. to Some Standard of Excellence or Quality.
*Norm-referenced grades compare what?
*NORM-REFERENCED grades compare:
a pupil's performance to that of OTHERS IN THE CLASS
*How does norm-referenced grading work?
*NORM-REFERENCED grades: Highest scores get a DESIGNATED # of high grades as defined by curve
*Criterion-referenced grades compare what?
*Should a teacher base grades on the pupil's performance compared to ability or how much improved?
*Do criterion-referenced grades have any limit on how many can get a certain grade?
*NO CRITERION-REFERENCED grades have NO LIMIT on # of pupils who can get a particular grade!
*A Teacher must decide what to include in awarding grades. What is the primary consideration?
*Subject matter grades should be based on SUBJECT MATTER MASTERY, not effort,motivation,participation,behavior
*Grading requires teachers to summarize many types of info into a single score. Which items should carry most weight?
*Grades should be primarily weighted MOST heavily by pupil perf. such as Tests and Projects.
*In order for a teacher to summarize types of info to arrive at a grade, how must the different types be expressed?
*In the SAME WAY and on the SAME SCALE,
( usually a % percentage scale )
*BEFORE combining different types of info. into a grade, what should happen?
*BEFORE combining info.s for a grade, teacher must REVIEW each, and if any INVALID assessments--make ADJUSTments.
*Grades are only valid if?
*VALID grades only come from the VALID ASSESSMENTS they are based on!
*Grading should be expanded/supplemented by what?
*Grading should be supplemented by other parent-teacher communications: conferences, parent nights, progress reports, papers n projects sent home.
Grades are the Symbols or Numbers used by a teacher to to Represent a pupil's Achievement in a subject area.
grading system
Grading system: process by which a teacher arrives at the symbol or # to rep. a pupil's achievement in a subject area.
norm-referenced grading
NORM-REFERENCED grading determines the quality of a pupil's perf. by COMPARING it to the Performance of OTHER PUPILS.
grading curve
grading curve: proportion of pupils who can receive each grade in NORM-REFERENCED grading system
performance standards
levels of achievement pupils must reach to receive particular grades in a CRITERION-REFERENCED grading system (ex. 90+=A,80+=B...)
criterion-referenced grading
CRITERION-REFERENCED grading determines quality of a pupil's performance by Comparing it to PREESTABLISHED STANDARDS of MASTERY.