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46 Cards in this Set

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supply questions
Supply questions are test items in which the student responds by constructing his own answer;includes Short-Answer, Completion & Essay
Items are Questions or Problems on an assessment instrument
The stem is the part of a multiple-choice item that States the Question to be Answered.
Options are choices available to select from in answereing a multiple-choice test item.
A premise is the Stem or Question part of a selection item.
A response is a pupil's answer to a test item.
A distractor is a wrong choice in a selection test item.
specific determiners
Specific determiners are words that Give Clues to True-False items: All, Always, Never, None (choose false); Some, Sometimes, May (choose true)
A key is a list of correct answers for a test.
subjective score
A subjective score means that Different Scorers or Raters will not agree on a pupil's score: Independent scorers produces different scores for student.
holistic scoring
Holistic scoring is a Essay Scoring Method in which a SINGLE score is given to represent the overall quality of the essay across all dimensions.
analytic scoring
Analytic scoring is the Essay Scoring Method in which separate scores are given for SPECIFIC ASPECTS of essay.
*Offical assessments help teachers make summative decisions for?
*Official assessments help teachers make summative decisions for: grades, promotion, placement and special ed referrals
*Official assessments are taken very seriously by pupils, parents, adminstrators and public, why?
*Official assessments are taken seriously because they are PUBLIC and have TANGIBLE CONSEQUENCES
*What is the Primary Aim of assessing student achievement?
*The primare of assessing student achievement is:
to provide a fair opportunity for students to show what they have learned from the instruction provided.
*The methods used to assess pupil learning depend on what?
*Methods to assess depend on OBJECTIVES & INSTRUCTION provided.
*What methods are ESSENTIAL to valid assessment?
*Methods that permit the pupils to SHOW THE BEHAVIORS TAUGHT are essential to assessment.
*What are the three types of questions that require Selection or Choice?
*"Selection" or choice items:
Multiple-Choice, Matching, True-False
*What are the types of questions that require students to "explain, construct, or defend answers"?
*"Explain, construct, defend" questions:
Short-Answer & Essay
*What type of assessment method is used to "demonstrate or show"?
*"Demonstrate, or show" questions require
Actual Performance(s).
*What is the decision to construct a test or use textbook test based on?
*Decision to use own or textbook test Depends On How Closely Instruction followed the Textbook. (more ommitted, or supplemented=less valid)
*What is the most basic requirement of official assessments?
*The most basic requirement of official assessments is:
*How should teachers prepare students for official assessment?
1)good instruction
2)review (?'s & practice from review)
3)familiarity with test format
4)tell time, coverage, format of test
*What items and examples should be discussed by a teacher in review?
*Proper type of review items & examples:
SIMILAR but NOT IDENTICAL to actual test items
*Paper-and-pencil tests can be composed of what two types of questions?
*Paper-and-penil tests:
Selection (mult choice, T-F, matching)
Supply (short-answer, completion, & essay)
*What two types of of questions can assess higher learning?
*Both Selection & Supply
can assess higher learning.
*What are the benefits of using Selection Items?
*The benefits of Selection Items are: broad sample, scored objectively.
*What are the benefits of Supply Items?
*The benefits of Supply Items are: easily prepared, pupils "construct" answers, discourage guessing.
*What are the down sides to using Selection Items?
*Down sides to Selection Items: time-consuming to make, and guessing is a problem.
*What are the down sides to using Supply Items?
*Supply Items prepare easily, but time consuming to Score and Limited Topics
*Supply is =
*Supply: easy to write, take forever to score, CAN'T cover as MANY topics
*Selection is =
*Selection: takes longer to write, Easier to score. CAN cover MANY topics
*How can teachers include higher level sckills into paper-and-pencil assessments?
*Higher level skills can assessed in paper-and-pencil assignments by "INTERPRETIVE" exercises. i.e. mult choice that requires interpreting know's
*What are the 3 general guidelines for writing paper-and-pencil assessments?
*pnp assessments:
1) cover important topics/behaviors
2) write CLEAR & SIMPLE
3) review items before testing
*Tests should reflect both:
*Tests should reflect both
higher level and lower level thinking.
*Most items in teacher-made and textbook tests are at what level of thinking?
*Most test items shouldn't be but are at RECALL or MEMORY level.
*6 rules to write items by:
1-no ambiguous/confusing writing, 2-appropriate vocabulary & sentence structure, 3-keep ?'s short and to the point, 4-write items to have just one correct answer, 5-give pupils information towards answer, not 6-giving clues to answer.
*In test assembly all items should be grouped together. In what order?
*Test items order: Selection, supply (short answer before essay).
*Each section of the test should have what?
*Each section should have:
directions of What To Do, How To Respond, and Where To Place Answers. (older kids can use how many pts. each item)
*What's important in the physical & psychological climate for assessment?
*Physical/psychological climate: comfort, advance notice of test, reviewing objectives, and encouragement w/o too much pressure.
*Accomodations in testing can be made in two ways:
*accomodations in
what's on test,
administering test
*It is the teacher's responsibility to reduce cheating how?
*Reduce cheating: seating arrangements, constantly circulating @ room, forbidding pupils to share things, and enforcing cheating rules, penalties.
*Selection items are easier to score Objectively than supply itmes. Supply is more:
*SUPPLY scoring: is more SUBJECTIVE scoring. Essay (of supply) is the most subjective scoring.
*What are the two principal methods of scoring essay tests?
*2 principal methods of scoring essays: Holistic (single overall score) & Analytic (scores for parts)
*Essay tests are difficult to score objectively. What makes essay scoring more objective:
*Essay scoring objectively:Decide ahead of time what makes a good answer. Decide how punct. & grammar will be scored. Score anonymously if poss. Read all responses to one essay question at a time, then go back to next. Reread essays to corroborate initial scores.
*After a test what should a teacher do about items' faulty unusual patterns of answers?
*After a test, see if fault is item's or student learning. If item's fault, scoring adjustment may be necessary.