Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Give the general formula for Haloalkanes.
What is a nucleophile?
electron pair donor
Which factor influences the rate of nucleophilic subsitution?
*strength of C-X bond
How does nucleophilic substitution work?
halogens are electronegative.C-X polar bond
electrons attracted to X which becomes slightly negative.
C is susceptible to attack from electrons
c-X bond breaks, X- ion released.
Nucleophile replaces X atom
What is another name given to the process of the reaction of haloalkanes and hydroxide ions?
Give the essential conditions for reacting haloalkane and OH ions.
Warm NAOH or KOH
what is produced by OH ions and haloalkane?
Give the essential conditions for reacting haloalkane and cynanides
KCN is used
what is produced by cyanides and haloalkanes?
what are nitriles turned into?
amides and then carboxylic acids and ammonia
By which process?
What is produced when reacting ammonia and haloalkanes?
primary amines
What is formed during base elimination?What is used?
OH ions
Give 3 factors affecting base elimination
*structure of haloalkane...primary undergoes substitution, secondary undergoes both simultaneously and tertiary undergoes elimination
*Strength of Base
*Reaction conditions
Name the conditions that can affect the outcome of the base elimination of secondary haloalkanes.
*elimination is favoured by hot ethanolic conditions
*substitution is favoured by warm aqueous conditions