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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a carboxyl grou and an adjacent amino group
Globular proteins
soluble in water or in gilute acids or bases or in acohols
Fibrous Proteins
Insoluble in water, resistant to digestive enzymes.
Conjugated Proteins
Amino acids bound to some type of non-amino group.
I. Globular Proteins

Found in egg and serum, soluble in water coagulated by heat....VERY HIGH PROTEIN QUALITY
I. Globular Proteins

about 80% of oilseed proteins (soy, conola, sunflower, cotton, and linseed) insoluble in water, soluble in salt solutions, heat labile, found in fibrinogen, myosinogen, legumin of peas, glycinin in soybean, serum globulin....HIGH PROTEIN QUALITY
I. Globular Proteins

found in corn, wheat, and barley. Insoluble in water, neutral saline, solube in dilute acids or bases....FAIR PROTEIN QUALITY
I. Globular Proteins

"Basic" proteins, excess of basic amino acids (Arg, lys, his) Often combined with nucleic acids; DNA and RNA, soluble in water. i.e. globin, part of hemoglobin. .....GOOD PROTIEN QUALITY (higher in combinations)
I. Globular Proteins

Soluble in ethanol, found in zein in corn, hordein of barley, gliadins of wheat, and rye....POOR PROTEIN QUALITY
II. Fibrous Proteins

Found in Chuck roast, skeletal connective tissue. Changed into digestible gelatins by boiling. Large amounts of hydroxyproline. No cystine, cysteine or tryptophan.....ZERO PROTEIN QUALITY
II. Fibrous Proteins

tendons and arteries, similar to collagens, cannot be convertied to gelatin, poorly digested, high in lysine....POOR PROTEIN QUALITY
II. Fibrous Proteins

feather, hair, claws, beaks. Very insoluble and indigestible, zero... HIGH CYSTINE (14-15%)...POOR-FAIR PROTEIN QUALITY...
Keratins treatment with heat and pressure
lowers cystine to 5-6%, breaks S-S bonds, and increases digestibility to about 70-80%
III. Conjugated Proteins

Glycoproteins with carbohydrates (CHO)
1. Nulceo proteins
2. Mucoproteins
3. Sulfated polysaccharides
nucleo proteins
Conjugated glycoprotein with carbohydrates - contains nucleic acids (i.e. ribonucleoprotein, deoxyribonucleoproteins)
Conjugated glycoprotein with carbohydrates

Proteins with amino sugars...found in hormones, enzymes, saliva, ovalbumin, protease inhibitors
sulfated polysaccharides
Conjugated glycoprotein with carbohydrates

chondroitin sulfates
III. Conjugated Proteins

water soluble proteins with LECITHIN, cephalin, cholesterol other lipids or phospholipids. Found in cell membranes, which lso include CHO
III. Conjugated Proteins

Simple protein to a colored prosthetic hemogoblin, cytochromes, flavoproteins, visual purple of retina
Protein Functions
1. Organs and soft tissues, muscle myofibrilar contractile.
2. Structural proteins
3. Blood
4. Digestion and metabolism
structural proteins (3)
Collagen, elastin, and keratin
blood proteins(5)
Globulins, albumin, globin, gibrinogen, and lipoproteins
Argenine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
Argenine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, AND Taurine (for cats), and Proline (for Hens), and Glycine (for young chicks)
protein quality
referes to the amount and ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) in a protein, feedstuff or diet.
Limiting Amino Acids
The EAA present in the least required amount compared to required concentration. Prevents animal from performing at genetic potential (ie. growth, milk production, muscle protein, and egg production)
DIP - degradable intake protein, UIP is undegradable protein, aka bypass protein)
Protein systems requirements and quality (7)
1. Growth/production response
2. blood constituents,
3. biological VAlue (BV), 4. Net Protein Utilization (NPU)
5. Amino Acid Bioavailability
6. "Ideal Protein"
7. Rumen Degradability
"Ideal Protein"
Diets that contain the ideal patterns of amino acids for the animal being fed, contain neither deficiencies nor excess amino acids, values for each amino acid are expressed as a % of lysine in the diet (1% lys = 100 and .13% tryptophan)
Amino Acid Antagonism
growth depression that can be overcome by supplementation by amino acid structurally similar to the antagonist. Differs in imbalance because the sumpplemented amino acids need not be limiting
Amino Acid imbalance
defined as any change in the proportion of dietary amino acids that has adverse effect preventable by a relatively small amount of the most limiting amino acid or acids.