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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Articulation
anatomical union (usually movable , between 2 or more bones)
Arthrology
study of ligaments and joints
Kinesiology
study of motion of human body
Rheumatology
study of arthritis and arthritic diseases
Fibrous Joints
connected by dense regular connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen
- these joints are also called "fixed" or "immovable" joints because they do not move, have no joint cavity and are connected via fibrous connective tissue. seen in skull bones (sutures etc)
parts of fibrous joints:
Suture: only between flat bones of skull, become rigid as person grows older, dense connective tissue

Gomphosis - joints formed by union of cone shaped bony processes in a bony socket (is a joint between the root of a tooth and the sockets in the maxilla or mandible)

Syndesmoses - found between long bones of the body, these are movable.
Ligament
1. A short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
2. A membranous fold that supports an organ and keeps it in position.
Cartilaginous Joints
hylan or fibrocartilge connects bones

Symphysis - articular surfaces covered by a thin layer of hylan cartilage is attached to pad of spongy fibrocartilage
- symphesis pubus
- annulus fibrosis of intervertebral disc


Synchondroses - bonds of hyaline cartilage unite bone many temporary
- costal cartilage
- epiphyseal plates (growth plates)
Synovial Joints
articular cartilage and joint capsule and synovial membrane (secrets synovial fluid)

Anatomical Characteristics
- synovial cavity
- articular capsule
* synovial membrane - hylan cartilage ends, synovial membrane begins, inner layer of joint capusle

* synovial fluid - like fluid, allows movement with near frictionless ease, contains stem cells.

- fibrous capsule
- articular cartilage
- accessory ligaments - reinforce capsule, prevents movement
* extracapsular ligaments - outside synovial cap
* intracapsular ligaments - inside articular capsule

- menisci - discs of fibrocartilage that divide synovial joints (wedge) tibeofemoral joint
- bursae - fluid filled sacs, inner lining of synovial membrane of nearby joint cavity, allows movement with near frictionless ease
- fat pad - filler, adipose ct

- fibrous capsule
synovial movemnets
gliding -
angular
rotation
circumduction
special
Synovial Joint Movements
Gliding
Angular
Rotation
Circumduction
Special
Gliding Synovial Joints
glides (superior articular facet of inferior verticular articular with inferior articular facet of superior vertebrae, carpals and tarsals)
Angular Synovial Joints
examples
antebrachium, lower leg vertebral column, cervical vertebrae

types:
flexion: lower angle between articulation in the bone
extension - make an increase in the angle between articulating bones
hyperextension - goes beyond anatomical position

(examples arm and leg)
abduction - goes away fromt he midline
adduction - goes towards the midline
Flexion
angular synovial joints

lower in angle between articulating bones

ex antebrachium, lower leg, vertebral column, cervical vert.
Extension
angular synovial joints

increase in angle between articulating bones

ex antebrachium, lower leg, vertebral column, cervical vert
Hyperextension
angular synovial joints

goes beyond the anatomical position

ex antebrachium, lower leg, vertebral column, cervical vert
Abduction
angular synovial joints

goes away from the midline

ex arm, leg
adduction
angular synovial joints

goes toward the midline

ex arm, leg
Rotation
Angular Synovial Joints

medial rotation (faces medially)
lateral rotation (faces laterally)

example: rotation of arm
Circumduction
example glenohumeral joint, coxal joint, (ie legs over the head)
Special Joint Movements
Synovial Joint Movements
Inversion - sole faces inwards (ex feet)
Eversion - sole faces outward (ex feet)
Dorsiflexion - toes point up (ex feet)
Plantar Flexion - toes point down
Protraction - moves anteriorly ex mandible, pectoral girdle, head)
Retraction - moves posteriorly (ex mandible, pectoral girdle, head)
Supination - when radius returns to normal (example palsm of hand)
Pronation - when radius goes over ulna (palms of hand)
Elevation - towards sky (ex mandible, pectoral girdle)
Depression - towards ground (mandible, pectoral girdle)
Inversion
Synovial Joint Movements
sole faces inwards (ex feet)
Eversion
Synovial Joint Movements
sole faces outward (ex feet)
Dorsiflexion
Synovial Joint Movements
toes pointed up (ex feet)
Plantar Flexion
Synovial Joint Movements
toes pointed down (ex feet)
Protraction
Synovial Joint Movements
moves anteriorly
(ex mandible, pectoral girdle, head)
Retraction
Synovial Joint Movements
moves posteriorly
(ex mandible, pectoral girdle, head)
Supination
Synovial Joint Movements
when radius returns to normal
(ex palms of hand)
Pronation
Synovial Joint Movements
when radius goes over ulna
(ex palms of hand)
Elevation
Synovial Joint Movements
movements superiorly
example mandible, pectoral girdle
Depression
Synovial Joint Movement
movement towards ground
example mandible, pectoral girdle
Skeletal Muscle Components
fascia
tendon
aponeurosis
tendon (synovial) sheaths
Fascia
Superficial fascia - located superficially - integumentary etc etc

Deep Fascia
> epimysium - external sheath of Connective Tissue surrounding a muscle (reg dense connective tissue)

> perimysium - around the fasicles, fibrous sheaths, enveloping each of the primary bundles of skeletal muscles fibers
>> fasciculi (fasicles) - bundles of muscle cells

> endomysium - fine connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle fiber
Gross Motor Movements
- few motor units
- each motor unit is large

therefore, nerves servicing muscles of gross motor movements are relatively small,e ven though the muscles may be very large

ie biceps brachii
fine motor control
- many motor units
- each motor unit is small

therefore nerves servicing muscles of fine motor control are relatively large, even though the muscle may be small

ie muscles that control eye movement or the tongue
myofibers
muscle cells (multinucleate)
myoblasts
makes muscle (s/a stem cell)
sarcolemma
membrane
sarcoplasm
cytoplasm
myofibrils
bundles of muscle cells
myofilaments
protein filaments
sarcomeres
individual contractile units, each sarcomere is an individual contractile unit
z lines
z discs
sarcoplalsmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum of the muscles
Terminal cisterns
enlargement of ER on either side of transverse tubue (storage of calcium)
transverse tubules (T Tubules)
active transport on going (always on) pumping CA into muscle (calcium gates)
Thin Myofilaments
- Actin (double helix configuration)
(thus have a myosin binding site)

Tropomyasin - troponin complex
> tropomyosin
> troponin

configurational changes and calcium

2 configurations
- closed gates, cover myasin binding site (no contractions)
- open gates, contraction on where calcum and troponin can engage
Thick Myofilaments
Myosin
- cross bridges
- actin binding site
- atp binding site
motor neuron
motor end plate
neuromuscular junction
synaptic end bulbs
synaptic cleft
acetylcholine