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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
voiced relatively open vocal tract, from syllable nuclei, high/low, front/back, tense/lax, rounded/unrounded
phonotactic rules
specific sounds and combionations allowed in a language, syllable shapes. CV, VC, CVC, CCV, VCC, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC, etc.
more vowel like liquides, glides, and nasals
less vowel like fricatives, and affricates
constriction of vocal tract voice, place, manner
higest energy fricatives z, sh, s, y palatal and alveolar fricatives
connected speech
coarticulation, adaptation, assimilation
preparation forseepch sounds with respect to phonectic context
articulation mod due to neighbor sound
assimilation/consonant harmonay
regressive and progressive type of coarticulation phonemes change sound enough become more like another phoneme ie vowels surrounding nasals take on nasal qualities.
regressive assmimilation
One sound is influenced by another sound such that a sound assumes features of a second sound. duck become guck
progressive assimilation
One sound is influenced by another sound such that a sound assumes features of a second sound. coat becomes coak
two sounds that are inverted
replacement of two adjacent sounds by one retains one of features of the original sound
the rules that govern the production of morphemes associated w phonemes
Phonological process
patterns of sound change that effect a class of sounds/the overall structure of words/syllables
sounds thar are the most marked are the sounds that are hardest to produce.
Non developmental process
not typically developing in children ie backing
Comprehension child language
2-understand 50% of what saying, 3 75% 4-90%, 5-100%
idiosyncratic process
specific to an individual child
behavioral model
lang. is learned in response to environment and reinforcement. Mowrer and Olmsted.
structural model
born w/ the ability to develop lang. w/ development following universal order ages vary, but featurs unfold in pattern. Roman Jakobson
generative model
stamp development attempt to mimic adult model motor limiations and perception due to age cause prod. to be simplified. Donegan and Stampe
cognitve model
children develop lag. they perceive units of speech not invividual phonemes. Word is basic unit of speech. Macken and Ferguson.
Locke's stages of phonological develop.
pragmatics, cognitive, systematic, and infant perception
stage of phono develop. sound conveys meaning to another person-ie babies cry to convey needs can comm. intentionally early/eye gaze etc.
stage of phono develop. @ about one year they can begin to store speech sounds and retrieve.
stage of phono develop. @ about 2 yrs being to look more like adult speech
infant perception
@ only a few months can distinguish speech sound. Tones presented variation results in a high amp of sucking.
Sequence of development
vocal articulatory control needed for speech. Control during first year: Phonation(on/off), pitch diff, volume diff (suprasegmentals), resonance, and timing
Year one
QRN, gooing/cooing, exploration, babbling, jargon
quasi resonant nuclei
occurs during year 1 almost resonant sound of vowel
occurs during year 1 more sustained vowel like sound and some consonants back vowels
expansion to fully resonant leading to babbling.
strong fully resonant reduplicated (da da), varigated (da ba, da di).
babbling with intonation sounds like real speech.
consistently used production used to mean a specific object. purpur for pacifier
Early developing sounds
stops and nasals
later developing sounds
firctives, glides and liquids
post vocalic singleton
constonant deletion, deletion of final consonant.
prevocalic singleton consonant deletion
deletion of the intial consonant
consonant sequence reduction
two/more consonants in a seq are deleted-
glottal replacement
placing a glottal in place of another consonant
a sound further back in the mouth is made further foward
front sound move back
a sound that is not palatal becomes palatal
a sound that is palatal becomes depalatal
producing a stop for a non stop consonant
sub a glide for a liquid, liquid turns into a true vocal usually in final sound
sound that is not an affricate becomes and affricate
air escapes laterally
non nasal becomes nasal
nasal becomes non nasal
one sound retains pars of two different sounds
a scwha insertion
affricate changes to fricative
voicing changes
prevocalic, devoicing, prevocalic voicing, post vocalic voicing, post vocalic devoicing, neutralization, assimilation, metathsesis, reduplication, dentalization
prevocalic devoicing
sound in intial position that is supposed to be voice -> devoiced
prevocalic voicing
sound in intial position supposed to be devoice->voiced
postvocalic devoicing
sound in final position supposed to be voice->devoiced
postvocalic voicing
sound in final position supposed to be devoiced->voiced
vowel becomes centralized
sounds switch places
part of a word that is repeated
anything that is not dental becomes dental
Treatment for children
schools, early intervention center, clinic, out patient, day care/preschoo, homes, hospital, private practice
Treatment for adolescents
schools, clinic homes, hospital, private practice
Treatments for adults
hospital, nursing home, home, rehab, assisted living, business, private practice
Assessments children
Goldman Fristo test of artic. w/ Kahn lewis phono analysis, hodsin assessment phono process, compreshensive, assess. of phono process
Adolescents and adults assessments
Arizona artic proficieny scale, templin ddarley, fisher logemann-does not provide phonological analysis
Straigh artic disorder
mostly children struggle w/ r, l, s
weaken muslce movement corrdination muscle problems affects anyone
apraxia motor planning can affect anyone
foreign accent modification-mostly adults
Elective dialect therapy
same lang. but changing dialect
Length therapy session
school 30-40 min across settings and aga
Agenda therapy session
intesity level change per individual
content therapy session
adult-reduce rate and overall artic
phonetic inventory
tape a child/artic test get a list of production determine which sounds are intial, final, and medial position.
factors related to communication disorders correlation vs. causality
related variables for speech disorders
hearing loss, structure/integrity of speech mech., neuromotor, motor issues, tongue thrust, cognitive impairment, psychological issues
Hearing loss results
articulation problems, suprasegmentals (prodosy, intensity, stress, and pitch)
Important factors hearing loss effect on speech
detection of speech which freq are affectd, age of onset of loss, age of detection of loss, severity.
external discrimination
other people speech-air conduction
external self discrimination
on tape through air conduction
internal discrimination
listening to own voice through bone conduction
Testing discrimination
Can discriminate between speech sounds present same speech sound over and over slip in one different indication of change?
no effect unless there are major deviations, cleft palate/lip-can have flat lip-no vermillion, border-doesn't affect speech
occlusion,malocclusion, overbite, open bite, unerbite, missing teeth-can affect speech
ankylglossia, macroglossia, microglossia
tongue tied-lingual frenulum is way up to front of tongue, no point in clipping if it doesn't affect speech
big tongue, may have mall mouth, weak muscles cause an appearance of big tongue
small tongue
removal of tongue partial/full partial may sound drunk, can affect intelligibility, SLP can work w/ what they have to teach comp. strategies to get most intelligible sound
Hard palate cleft
maxiallary surgery use of obturation(bulb applicance used to close palate) improve intelligibility compensatory strategy to get best intell. fistual small opening in palate
Soft palate cleft
velopharyngeal incompetence pharyngeal walls causing air escape reasons refer to ent.
Motor skills
general muscles weakness often associated w/ artic diff.
Pataka-rate-realtionship in func. artic disorders is unclear, clear difficult if dyspraxic, if reduced rate may be artic probs.
neuromotor disorder central/peripheral damage all speech sys. may be damaged(stroke) cerbral nerves, msucle itselt/peripheral nerves, damage to motr strip in central/damage to synapes/myneural junction
Dysarthria characteristics
resonation, artic, resp/phonation, problems w/ any, distortions predominant, slow, weak imprecise movements, consistent errors, dec. intell, slurred
CNS prefrontal area, decrease motro speech program in msg, little/no weakness, more diff to do motor funct. on command
apraxia characteristics
artic affect in a big way non consistent, groping behaviors, substitutions and additions predominate, automatic speech often better than purposive
Cognitive impairment
Large range of norm. little correlation w/ artic. 70-130 IQ range, 85-115 ave IQ, below 70 cog. impaired, 125-130 academ. gifted. artic disorder correlation cog. delay
Phonological disorder
subset of artic. disorder
General characteristics of phonological disorder
later develop sounds are errored, poorer speech discrim skills, var. in sound prod., more errors w/ place than others, orderly seq of miss artic, position affect erros, shorter MLU, poorer speech intell, poorer sense/motor ability, homnymy, substitutions
Full artic/phonological analysis
case history, artic testing, oral mech exam, hearing screening, lang. screening and assessment, voice and fluency screening, behavior observation, cog. issues
Case History
birth, previous therapy, health, lang. develop.
Interpreting result
delay, errors, position errors, processes, compare norms, blocked processes, processes productively, cause, serverity based on consistency, intell, # errors, and types
Make prognosis for improve
age and been in therapy b4, therapy recomended, freq and duration of therapy.
Templin Darley
Iowa pressure artic. test assessing phonemes more compromised when velopharyngeal closing is a problem. use for resonance eval.
screening test never place someone in therapy based.
grenarl overview of person's skills usually informal ex: listening to a child during class brief.
a formal look @ someone's speech abilities: also called diagnostic, eval.
used during artic test if they don't get the word. Not allowed during a lang. test
Chosing a test
Age what area (single words may be fine, but prob w/ connected speech) what's available develop. level, clinician's pref.
recording types of errors
look beyond test and also connected speech then say xxx speech intell. judge to fair, poor/good.
Look beyond test
phonetic context is it errored in all positions always
Why would connected speech be unintell.
sppech rate easier to say a word in isolation than it is to say a word in connected speech
deep testing
McDonal deep test for artic. tests words in a variety of phonetic contexts some called an ext. test
can the sound be produced in the presence of maximal areas.
Oral mech exam
purpose to test structure funct. of artic and facial charact. oral mech. peripheral checklist) including diadochokinesis)
Hearing screening
20 dB @ 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 4000 Hz, 8000 Hz
Auditory discrimination
in some cases test cognates pat/bat, sat/that, sip/zip are each of these same/different
Auditory discrimination needs
must be attentive to take, know what same/difference means, have table of objects give me hat/give me bat
oral mech, auditory discrimination, case history/interview, screen for voice, fluency, lang, listening
must have a statement about each of these things in eval.
Common artic tests
Goldman fristoe, templin darley, photo artic, fisher, and arizona
Articulation assessment
must also screen, oral mech, hearing, voice, fluency, lang. case history.
Phonological assessment
will include all components of screening and artic assess and looks more in depth @ speech
Phonological processes
patterns occur predictibility
what must assessment yield
how severe is prob, what processes are occur, how diff from normal, help plan for remediation, give baseline data
things to remember assessment
not a one time thing assess is ever changing look @ how client behave changes and change plan accord. always assess is it working?
Choosing a test
availablility, age, time, therapist preference, make sure looks at all phonemes, try for spontan. prod, if have to imitate make delay imitate by interject words b/w your prod. and theirs
artic test focus on single words?
Time, may not know what to do w/ cont. speech
probs w/ spontaneous speech sample
may not sample all phonemes, can do phon. inventory if you don't know target, but you can't do a phono analysis unless know target. no comp. data.
limitations w/ spontaneous speech
no comparison data, limited phonemes, time comsuming
How to get spontaneous speech
tell a story have repeat it, get talking about something interested in, toys that won't interfere w/ getting a sample-needs to facilitate speech (game), book w/o words, puppets
homonymy analysis
using the same phomemic combo for several diff. targets-high homonymy-low intelligibility-restricted phonetic inventory.
phonetic analysis
wasy to look @ speech
phonetic inventory
was phoneme there and in what positions, also syllable shape analysis
phonological process analysis
what pattern, what substitution, what context
oral mech exam looking
structure and funct. of all artic. as well as stable struc. can person move tongue(every movement) missing any teeth?
tongue movement
w and w/o resistence stick out tongue
Puff up cheeks
lip closure and velopharynx closure
modified tongue anchor procedure
stick out tongue and puff cheeks
Voluntary movement
can person stick out tongue when asked?
involuntary movement
watch to see if they can stick out tongue while talking, if not could be sign of dyspraxia
Phonological deviations
Omissions, substitutions, manner changes