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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Articles of Confederation
- 1777-1787

- 2nd Continental Congress agreed to a new govt. to now independent states.

- Congress is created under AoC. However, was not ratified until 1781.

- 1st "Constitution"
Government under the Articles
- National govt's power: specific and definite
-> Sole power to negotiate treaties, declare war and make peace
-> Right to maintain Army & Navy
-> Deal with the Indians
-> Resolves Interstate dispute, grant loans and money
-> Operate postal system
-> Govern western ter. until achieved statehood
-> All power not granted to Congress are reserved for States
(*)-> Congress not have power to levy taxes
-> Amendments required unanimous agreement by all states
Fear of Strong Central Government
- Made national govt. weak
- Loosely tie the States for common good
- Afraid of fed tax
- "No taxation without Representation." (remembering it)
- Only States can levy tax
- Many States refuse to pay tax the Congress asked for - could not demand
- Congress no rights to intervene Interstate Commerce
Problems under the Articles
- no true way to arm or raise Navy (Shay's Rebellion -> State Militia not Fed's)
- no true executive branch (President has zero power)
- no true judicial branch
- no common currency
- no way to regulate interstate commerce
- flawed foreign policy
- Virtually impossible to amend the AoC
Successes of the Articles
- Got Colonies through the Revolutionary War
- Gave most powers to States
- Land Ordinance of 1785 & Northwest Ordinance of 1787 = Established order in the west and allowed westward migration. If ~5k free white men are inhabiting the territory, the men can decide whether to become a State. It also abolished slavery in that territory.
The Annapolis Convention
- 1786

- Maryland

(*) - Delegates from 5 States met in revising the AoC

- Delegates could not agreed how to change AoC, so need to have another Convention to ,again, revise the AoC.

- Next meeting is the Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention
- 1787

- Philadelphia

- Delegates from 12 States met in revising AoC

- Most were not Revolutionaries, but most has experience writing State Constitution

- All were wealthy landowners, but realize should deal with all social classes
3 Branches of Government
- Should replaced the Articles
- Sole reason: Revise the Article. But, Began to form a new govt.
Virginia and New Jersey Plan
- The Virginia Plan bicameral based on Population

- The New Jersey Plan wants equal representative despite of Populations
Great Compromise
- 2 Houses: Senate and House of Representatives

- Senate: 2 for each States
-> Senators appointed by State Legislatures every 6 years

- House of Representative: Based on Population
-> Representative elected by the people every 2 years
- President via Electoral College
- 4-year term
Commander-in-Chief of the Military
- Appoints Federal Judges
- Can Vetoes Legislation passed by Congress
The Judiciary
- Judicial Branch is headed by Supreme Court which is headed by Chief Justice

- Structure does not show until 1789
Checks and Balances
- Balance Power

- Each Branch checks other Branches
Fear of Pure Democracy
- Gives power directly to the people

5 example:
1. Senators appointed by State Legislature, not people and serves 6 years
2. House of Representative elected by people but only serves 2 terms
3. Laws given by HoR must be sent to the Senate and be approve and ratified before it becomes an Active Law
4. Electoral College of President
5. Life term of Supreme Court
3/5 Clause
- Slave counts as 3/5 of a person in terms of representations