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38 Cards in this Set

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Barthes, Roland
The Death of the Author
MULTIPLICITY OF WRITING CONVERGES IN READER; COMES w/ DEATH OF AUTHOR (1968)

-ideas, not author
-text replaces lost voice
-Surrealism
-writing = clash of unoriginal ideas
Burckhardt, Jacob
Reflects on History
TAKE TRAVERSE SECTIONS OF HISTORY IN NOVEL COMBINATIONS WITH AS MUCH INFORMATION AS IS AVAILABLE (1872)

-no a singular system of purpose (emp)
-Centaur: subordinate/coordinate
-not privy to eternal wisdom/origins
-histories are reflections of self
Foucault, Michel
The Order of Things
UNCONSCIOUSNESS OF WESTERN EPISTEME MUST BE ACKNOWLEDGED (1970)

-things suffer in law of geometry
-Heterotopias destroy tabula
-order: inner law/nothing > than grid
-btwn codes/order = true experience
Foucault, Michel
What is an Author
AUTHOR IS AN IDEOLOGICAL PRODUCT CONSTRUCTED BY THE AUTHOR FUNCTION, THE WORK, AND THE AUTHOR NAME (1969)
-immanent rule: how said/not what
-what generates author’s ideas?
-author = icon that is obj. of investing.
-author created by the work
-return to origin: change practice itself
Ginzburg,
Carlo Morelli, Freud, and Sherlock Holmes
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO CONNOISSEURSHIP OFFERED BY MORELLI HAS ANCIENT ROOTS & PENETRATES MULTIPLE LEVELS OF SOCIETY (1983)
-those that read clues 1st tell story
-high (sup. Know), low (know→un-K)
-scientific = printing press, Galileo
-qualitative/quantitative
Gombrich, Ernst
In Search of Cultural History
CULTURAL HISTORIAN SHOULD HAVE NO PRECONCEIVED NOTIONS (ESPECIALLY NOT HEGELIAN, WHICH IS UTTERLY TOTALIZING) (1972)
art makes art? = questioning Hegel
-exegetic method: intrp. Based on similar
-super-ind collective: Hegelian spirit
-should look at individual cultural history
Gombrich, Ernst
Style
STYLE IS AN EXPRESSIVE CHOICE THAT ACCORDS w/ METAPHYSICAL, AND CAN PROVIDE STARTING POINT INTO CULTURAL NARRATIVES (1968)

-style =expressive choice, distinct &recog.
-label style with normative
-tech & competition change style
-physiognomy of style = spirit of age
Hegel
Aesthetics
ART IS DIVINED BY THE ABSOLUTE SPIRIT (1886)
-Idea of beauty of art: individual reality & configuration → reveal idea
-Freedom = freedom of will
-Hierarchies of art acc. to material weight
Kant, Immanuel
The Critique of Judgment
1790
AESTHETIC JUDGEMENT RELIES ON A SUBJECTIVE PRINCIPLE, AND THEREFORE IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO DERIVE A FORMULAIC MODEL OF COGNITION (?) 1790
-ideal: repr ind existence adequate to idea
-judgment: btwn understanding/reason
-judg. as faculty: reflective/determinant
-judg. of taste: subjective
-delight: cognition/sensation of pleasure
-agreeability: sensation, not understand
-good: cognitive, not sensuous
-beauty brings universal delight
-universal agreement on taste
Morelli, Giovanni
Italian painters
PROPOSING SCIENTIFIC METHOD TO ATTRIBUTE PROPER AUTHORSHIP, WHICH REFLECTS INTIMATE UNDERSTANDING OF ARTIST’S ESSENTIAL CHARACTER (THROUGH DETAIL) 1890
-writing can be false; only art = document
-to attribute authorship, not impress/doc
-connoisseur = objective visual analysis
Panofsky, Erwin
The History of the Theory of Human Proportions
HUMAN PROPORTIONS ARE UNIQUE TO, AND DEFINE STYLE (1955)
-proportions express kuntswollen = style
-technical: formulaic scale, obj.: normal
-style is a taxonomy = not purely objectiv.
-preceded modern body theory
Panofsky, Erwin
The History of Art as a Humanist discipline
ART & ART HISTORY RECONSTRUCT INTENTIONS OF ARTISTS THROUGH INSTITUTIONAL PRACTICE (1940)
-humanity: conviction/dignity of man
-humanist: art theorist = poet
-not interpretative, based on data
-organic model solves re-creative/forgery
Pliny the Elder
Natural History
ART IS A SUBSET OF A LARGER HUMAN HISTORY (79)
-mythological: painting begins w/ shadow
-qualitative
Riegl, Alois
Late Roman Art Industry
ART HAS A DEFINITE AND PURPOSEFUL KUNTSWOLLEN ACROSS MEDIUM THAT WORK IN A PROGRESSION (1901)
-rejects idea of decay (art precedes art)
-no hierarchies across medium
-art is result of material & kuntswollen
Schapiro, Meyer
Style
STYLE IS SYMPOTMATIC OF THEIR TIME AND HAS NO HIERARCHIES (1953)
-style: for AH, investigate distinct quality
-style point to a specific spatio-temporal
-style is means to cultural info, not end
-To ID art, Form motive/relat., quality
Vasari, Giorgio
The Lives of the Artists
CONSTRUCTS INDIVIDUAL GENIUS BY INSISTING ON INDIVIDUAL IDENTITIES OF THE ARTISTS (1568)
-organization by style
-individual IDs = exp of creating arts
Warburg, Aby
Images from the Regions of the Pueblo Indians
EVOLUTIONARY STAGE OF SPIRIT IS STAGGERED ACROSS SPATIO-TEMPORAL; CAN VIEW PAST IN THE PRESENT TIME (1923)
-universal symbols indicate univ. of spirit
White, Hayden
The Historical Text as Literary Artifact
RE-PLOT UNFAMILIAR POINTS INTO FAMILIAR NARRATIVES/SCHEMA (1978)
-metahistory: answer Q w/o using history
-cannot craft theme; fact = story element
-history = psychoanalysis/expectations
-align history to contemp to better under.
Winckelmann
History of Ancient Art
PROMOTE SCHOLARLY ATTENTION TO ART, WITH GREEK ANTIQUITY AS THE PLATONIC IDEAL (1764)
-history ≠ epoch or individual artists
-rise & fall: Neces, pursuit, superfluous
-no scholarship b/c read, not invest; no concept of beauty (undiscovered truth)
Winckelmann
Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in painting and Sculpture
”GOOD TASTE WAS BORN IN GREECE” (1755)
-should imitate ancients to produce art
-emotive/parenthyrsos: downfall of cont.
-moderns are better at painting
Wolfflin
The Principles of Art History
FORMAL ANALYSIS & COMPARISONS TO GIVE MEANING TO STYLISTIC DIFFERENCES (1915)
-style deriv. b/c no objective vision
-zeitgeist
-painterly percep = psych,
-decorative feeling necessary change style
Biological (Organic) Model of Art
(Vasari) Art is born, grow up, grow old, die
Cosmos of Culture
(Panofsky) Organization of historical fact into cultural fabric; spatio-temporal structure in relation to each other (primitive ≠ contemporary of Michelangelo)
Organic situation
(Panofsky) Solves deadlock/paradox; history & doc make a whole b/c new info fits or creates new theories; solves forgeries as well as intuitive recreation of the artwork upon observation
Heterotopia
(Foucault) Breakdown of language (opposite of utopia)
Codes of Culture
(Foucalt) Establish the order of things w/in a culture; Language, schemas, values (its opp=sci law)
Art Morphology
(Morelli) Understanding the outward forms in a work of art
Author Function
(Foucault) What an author demarcates, like using “I”, & 2 other things (???????)
Founders of Discursivity
(Foucault) Marx & Freud initiated ideas that continue with same validity in later times; unanswered
Optical refinement
(Panofsky) Correct the visual impression
Epistemology
(Foucault) The study of how we know what we know
Vast Spiritual Map
(Burckhardt) Projection of ethnography that embraces both material and spiritual world
Exegetic Method
(Gombrich) Bases interpretation of the detection of likeness (that doesn’t conform to Hegel’s Spirit)
Supra-Individual Collective
(Gombrich) Term for Hegelian idea; claims that it blocks the possibility of real cultural histories
Free Concrete Spirituality
(Hegel) Romantic art reaches concrete spiritually free of sensuous form (for the most part)
Decorative Feeling
(Wolfflin) Dictates style; changes in decorative feeling change mode of representation
Parenthyrsos
(Winckelmann) Exaggerated, out of place pathos
Conjectural Paradigm
(Ginzburg)