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110 Cards in this Set

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Edict of Milan
provides tolerance for Christians
Byzantine
Greek speaking Roman empire of the middle ages centered in Constantinople
Constantinople
modern-day Istanbul, capital of Byzantine empire, named after Constantine
catacombs
underground burial grounds consisting of tunnels and niches
cubiculum/cubicula
a small private room for burials in catacombs
icon/iconic
symbolizes larger idea in faith
narthex
porch in front of entrance to basillica
clerestory
topmost zone of a wall with windows to provide direct sunlight to the nave
transept
horizontal element perpendicular to the nave (allowed for greater crowds)
mausoleum
monumental building used as a tomb
martyrdom
enduring suffering because of a belief, principle or cause
Justinian
eastern empire flourishes under his rule
central plan
structure designed with primary central space surrounded by symmetrical areas on each side
gallery
story found above side aisles of a church overlooking the nave
pendentives
triangular elements that have square bottoms and round tops
Ravenna
city it Italy, former seat of the Roman empire
Bishop Ecclesius
local bishop that commissioned the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna
exedrae
semicircular niche, often decorative
Justinian and Theodora
successful ruler in Italy and his wife
iconoclasm
banning or destruction of icons and religious art
Pantokrator
"divine" or "ruler of the universe"
cloisonne
enamel technique where metal and wire are affixed to the surface to form a design
enamel
powdered glass is applied to a surface in a decorative design
Anglo-Saxon/Hiberno-Saxon
Germanic people that inhabited Great Britain/post-Roman Britain
Viking
ship-borne warriors and traders from Scandanavia
interlace
linear decoration in which ribbonlike bands are illusionistically depicted as if woven over and under one another
illuminated manuscript
text is supplemented by decoration
folio
a page or a leaf in a manuscript or book
Carolingian
art named for Charlemagne
Charlemagne
conquered Italy, Carolingian art
westwork
tower above porch entrance with stair towers on each side
abbey church
attached to a monastery
Ottonian
rulers during Magdeburg papacy
Romanesque
architectural period in 11th and 12th centuries in medieval Rome and Europe
feudal system
class system of Europe during the Middle Ages
vassals
defended lords in exchange for land
Normandy
William invades England and becomes king in 1006, Bayeux tapestry tells of victory
Battle of Hastings
battle between William and the British told in Bayeux tapestry
relic
venerated objects associated with a saint or martyr
reliquary
a container made of precious materials used to house sacred relics
pilgrimage
long journey in search of moral significance
ambulatory
passageway around the apse or central space
apsidal chapel
a semicircular or polygonal chapel
nave
central aisle
crossing
intersection of nave and trasept, often marked by an exterior tower or dome
choir
reserved for clergy or the religious, screened walls and seats
apse
semicircular niche protruding from the end wall of a building
buttresses
architectural support consisting of massive masonry built against an exterior wall
piers/compound piers
masonry support/a large column with shafts attached to it on one or all sides
rib/rib vaulting
extra masonry/ribs demark the junctions of a groin vault to reinforce or for decoration
jamb/jamb columns
vertical element found on both sides of an opening in a wall
lintel
horizontal element of any material carried by two or more vertical supports to form an opening
trumeau
a column, pier or post found at the center of a large portal or doorway supporting the lintel
tympanum
the area over a door enclosed by an arch and a lintel, often decorated
archivolts
curved molding formed by the voussoirs making up an arch
voussoirs
the oblong, wedge-shaped stone blocks used to build an arch
Burgundy
historic region of France
Ile-de-France
administrative region of France (Paris)
Abbot Suger
French patron of Gothic architecture, artist
flying buttresses
an arch built on the exterior of a building that helps transfer weight of the walls
triforium
series of arched openings below the clerestory
lancets
tall, narrow window crowned by a sharply pointed arch, typical of Gothic architecture
rose window
a round window often filled with stained glass, with tracery patterns in the form of wheel spokes
Annunciation/Visitation
when the angel Gabriel visits the virgin Mary and tells her she will become pregnant with Jesus
Rayonnant
"to radiate" used to describe gothic rose windows and thier glass pattern
grisaille
painting executed primarily in shades of gray
Pieta
devotional subject in Christian religious art when Jesus is laying across Mary after the crucifixion
humanism
emphasizes value and worth of people
Duomo
italian term for cathedral church
lantern
turretlike structure situated on a roof with windows that allows light into the space below
Medici
powerful and influential Florentine family
sacristy
room in which priests robes and sacred vessels are housed
Corinthian
ornate order with capital of elaborate leaf carvings
rustication
rough irregular and unfinished effect given to the exterior facing of a stone building
dressed stone
highly finished, precisely cut blocks of stone laid evenly
stringcourse
continuous horizontal band, such as molding, decorating the face of a wall
cornice
horizontally projecting element found at the top of a building wall
baptistry
often circular building used for Christian ritual of baptism
David and Goliath
David killed the giant Goliath with a stone and a sling shot
Enrico Scrovegni
patron of artist Giotto
fresco
water based pigments are applied directly to plaster
Joachim and Anna
parents of virgin Mary in orthodox traditions
donor/patron
support, encouragement and financial aid given
linear perspective
method of creating illusion of 3-D space on a 2-D surface by delineating a horizontal line and multiple lines that converge at a vanishing point
Saint Peter
one of twelve apostles who founded the church in Rome
continuous narrative
tells a story throughout all pieces of the work
tempera
paint made by blending eggs with water and pigment
Venus pudica
Roman sculpture of woman covering her groin, many people copied with woman covering her breasts
Plato/neoplatonism
Greek philosopher/mystical belief system that stemmed from Plato's teachings
Flemish
anything related to Flanders, Dutch language
Book of Hours
a private prayer book having a calendar, services for canonical hours, and sometimes special prayers
triptych
an artwork made up of 3 panels that may be hinged together so the side panels can cover the central area
oil painting
painting executed with the pigments floating in a medium of oil, allows for greater ease of working
Saint Anthony
Egyptian Christian saint, order of monks
Saint Anthony's Fire
named after order of monks that were particularly successful at treating the skin disease
Martin Luther
protestant reformer, Lutheranism, Middle Ages
Protestant Reformation
16th century movement to reform Catholic church in western Europe
indulgences
remission granted by church for sins which are already forgiven, often had to be paid for
woodcut
print made by carving design into wooden block, ink applied with roller and printed
engraving
printmaking process of inscribing an image onto a surface from which print is made
sfumato
"smoky" softening technique: hazy appearance, muted edges
refectory
monastery dining room
Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists
Italian painter and architect who wrote about many famous artists
Stanze della Segnatura
"signature room" commissioned by Pope Julius II and painted by artist Raphael
Pope Julius II
"Warrior Pope" commissioned Michelangelo to do -Julius' Tomb-
also, nephew of Sixtus IV
Aristotle
Greek philosopher, student of Plato
Heraclitus
first to create robust philosophical system
San Pietro in Monotorio
church built at site of St. Peter's crucifixion
Pope Sixtus IV
Sistine Chapel named for him, he brought the artists together, but Michelangelo's work was added at a later date
prophets and sibyls
part of Michelangelo's Sistine paintings