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143 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
an element of design derived from reflected light. The sensation of color is aroused in the brain by response of the eye to different wavelengths of light
the name of a color - like "red" or "violet"
the strength or brightness of a color. Intensity can be changed by the addition of a color's complement
the element of design that refers to the lightness and darkness of a color. Value can be changed by the addition of white and/or black to a color
a color mixed with white
a color mixed with black
a color mixed with both black and white
Primary Colors
the three colors used to produce all other colors on the color wheel. The primary colors are red, yellow and blue
Secondary Colors
the three colors made by mixing any two primary colors together. The secondary colors are orange, green and violet
Intermediate Colors (Tertiary Colors)
six colors on the color wheel made by combining one primary color and the secondary color next to it. When referring to intermediate colors, always list the primary color before the secondary color and hyphenate the word
Neutral Colors
colors that are made by mixing all three primary colors together. Neutral colors include gray and brown
Complementary Colors
any two colors directly opposite on the color wheel, such as violet and yellow. There are six possible complementary color pairs on the color wheel. When side by side, they contrast each other and when mixed, they dull each other
Color Schemes
organizations of colors that work together
Complementary Color Schemes
created by using any complementary pair, such as blue and orange. A scheme using a complementary pair will also use mixtures or the two colors
Analogous Color Schemes
the combinations of three or more neighboring colors on the color wheel. No colors are "skipped."
Monochromatic Color Schemes
use only one color or hue with varying amounts of white, black, and/or gray
Cool Colors
colors suggesting coolness. These are colors that contain blue, green, and violet - relate to water. Generally, cool colors recede
Warm Colors
colors suggesting warmth. These are colors that contain red, orange, and yellow - relate to the sun. Generally, warm colors procede
dry, powdered coloring agent used in the manufacturing of paints
an adhesive used to hold particles of pigment together in pain, and to hold the color to the paintint surface
not allowing light to pass through; opposite of transparent
an element of design that is two-dimensional and encloses area
solid, three-dimensional mass; painters create the illusion of form on a two-dimensional surface through the use of value
range of light to dark tones of a particular color
the texture of paper, canvas or other material
Flat Brush
oblong haired brush with a long handle and blunt tip
Round Brush
pointed tip brush
Fan Brush
a brush made in the shape of a fan; used to blend colors or create texture
the metal part of the brush that holds the hairs or bristles
surface on which paint is kept or mixed during painting; also, the colors with which an artist chooses to work
a liquid used to thin paint to a spreadable consistency
Blocking in
placing major objects/areas within a painting with simple tone, color and line
a thin, liquid application of paint
Flat Wash
applying paint without variations in value or color, and no brushmarks showing
Graded Wash
applying paint with a variation in value (dark to light or light to dark)
Hard Edge
sharp lines and forms that do not blend into nearby areas
Soft Edge
blurred areas that blend into nearby edges without a definite line
to blend an edge so that it fades off or softens
paint that runs into an adjoining area, usually undesirable; also refers to fuzzy edges within a painting
a transparent (can be seen through) layer of paint applied over a dry area, allowing the underpainting to show through
the first paint applied to a painting surface, to be overpainted with other colors or glazes
describe a painting in which the brushstrokes are evident and important; appears free in style or technique
a thick, heavy application of paint, applied with either a brush or knife, that stands out from the surface
Dry Brush
a technique in which very little color or water is on the brush, creating a "skipped" effect
an art movement based on creating paintings that are so minutely detailed and realistic they look like photographs
to modify natural forms and make a representation in a certain predetermined manner or style
style of painting that tries to communicate strong personal and emotional feelings
paintings created with transparent pigment mixed with water; watercolor paints may come in the form of tubes or pans
a combination of pigment and binder
the dry coloring matter used in manufacturing paints; dry color added to a binder makes paint
the quality of watercolor occuring when light passes through the color so that the paper or the underlying color shows through
the quality of watercolor occuring when light does not pass through the color and underlying paper is hidden (opaque watercolor should be made only by adding layers, not by a single application of paint)
the texture of paper, vanbas or other material. Paper surfaces vary from smooth to rough. Hot-press papers are smooth, whereas cold-press papers are rough and extremely textureed
Watercolor Paper
the thickness and weight of paper is determined by how much a ream (500 sheets) of 22 inch by 20 inch paper weighs
fluid color (usually applied rapidly over an area; using a large wet brush with wet paint and dry paper
Flat Wash
an even passage of fluid color
Graded Wash
a wash where color value ranges from light to dark
a wash of color brushed onto moistened paper
the application of wet pigment to a dry surface
Dry Brush
a technique where a brush is dipped into water, then squeezed to remove excess water, and dipped into pigment
a transparent layer of paint applied over a previously painted area that is dry...allowing the underpaint to show through
the process or mixing two or more colors together with wet paint...allowing the colors to mix on the painting surface rather than the palette
the process of using a damp brush, towel, cloth, etc. to "lift" the paint from a damp or wet painting
to blend an edge so that it fades off or softens
the application of a wax or oil based substance prior to applying wet pigment, which will resist the wet pigment
dropping small amounts of salt (preferably rock salt or possibly table salt) onto a painted wet surface; the salt absorbs the water
Rubbing Alcohol
dropping small maounts of rubbing alcohol to a painted wet surface...drops form "rings" or "circles" in wet paint
the application of masking tape or masking fluid to cover a dry surface prior to painting to stop the spread of wet paint
an earth mineral substance that is plastic when wet and hard and rocklike when fired
refers to anything made from clay
clay that has not been fired
a creamy mixture of water and clay that is used to "glue" two pieces of clay together
the quality of clay that allows to be easily manipulated and still maintain its shape
clay that is stiff, but still darmp
Bone Dry
the condition of unfired clay that has no absorved moisture other than matural humidity
clay that has been fired once, unglazed
clay that has been through two firings: a bisque firing and a glaze firing. Glazes are chemicals applied to a clay surface that melt together and form a decorative and protectie glass surface
created by building (adding to) the surface of a clay form
created by reducing or partially carving away the surface of a clay form
techniques include the three methods of pinch, coil and slab
a method when the clay is pulled and pinched to create a form
a method that uses long ropes of blay to build a form
a method that uses flat pieces of clay to construct a form
the process of roughening the edges of clay with a tool in order to join two pieces of clay together
the process of kneading, folding and rolling clay to remove air pockets to make clay smooth and consistent
an oven for firing clay
heating the clay or glaze to a specific temperature
Potters Wheel
a machine used to fashion clay into symmetrical forms
a term used when using clay on a potter's wheel
a hollow object or utensil (such as a vase, pitcher or container)
objects have a designated function or useful purpose other than decoration
objects are three-dimensional forms created for decorative purposes
the way a surface feels to the touch
Applied Texture
a texture applied to a surface to increase visual interest
texture is created by pressing a textured object onto a clay surface or by pressing clay onto a textureed surface
created by placing a thin and flexible object onto a clay surface, and gently rubbing the texture of the object onto the clay surface
a decorative process where a line is scratcheddrawn through a layer of slip or glaze before firing to expose the clay underneath (can be considered applied texture)
a three-dimensional design that has been either cast, carved, modeled or constructed
someone that creates sculptures
refers to anything having or appearing to have height, width and depth
a term referring to a sculpture that has height, width and depth and is freestanding
a sculpture with moving elements whether actuated by motor, by hand, or by natural forces
a sculpture that projects from a background which it is part of; therefore, not freestanding
low relief
medium relief
high relief
a sculptural technique to build mass; construction is an example of building mass
sculptures created by removing mass; carving is an example of removing mass
Positive Space
refers to the shape/form of an object or the object itself
Negative Space
refers to the space around or within the shape/form of the object. A negative space within a positive space is like a hole in a donut. Negative shapes create emphaasis and open up a sculpture's overall mass
the skeletal framework, or supporting structure that serves as the core for a sculpture
the outside size and bulk of a form
a small model of an intended sculpture
a sculpture that is installed (permanently or temporarily) in a particular space
a sculpture assembled from found objects and generally "finished" in one color; consisting of an arrangement of miscellaneous objects such as metals, scraps, wood, string, etc.
Papier Mache
a process of applying paper strips and/or pulp with a binder
Mixed Media
a combination of materials such as ink and watercolor, or cardboard and plaster, to create a work of art
Found Objects
natural and/or manufactured, everyday objects that can be used to create a work of art. Generally, found objects are discarded materials that are recycled in the form of art
a means of maintaining visual equilibrium in a work of art
Symmetrical Balance
the same design on either side of a central axis (mirror image)
Asymmetrical Balance
cannot be divided into identical halves but is still balanced. It may consist of two small shapes balanced by one large shape
Radial Balance
is seen in designs that are based on a circle. The features of the design come out of a central point. A common example of radial balance is a wheel
the differences in values, colors, textures, and other elements in an artwork to achieve emphasis and interest
a series of gradual changes
blending elements in a pleasing way
leads the viewer to sense action in a work of art or it can be the path the viewer's eye follows throughout an artwork
a decorative visual repetition of elements such as color, lines and shapes in a work of art. Pattern unifies and organizes specific areas and it enriches an artwork visually by making it more complex and interesting
is concerned with the relationship of one part to another and to the whole. Correct proportion in an artwork creates a feeling of harmony
concerned with repeating an element to make a work seem active or suggest vibration
the arrangement of elements and principles with media to create a feeling of wholeness or oneness in a work of art
refers to an assortment of lines, shapes, colors and textures to create interest in a work of art. This can be achieved by varying the size of shapes and line thickness which results in less monotony and greater interest in an art work
chemicals applied to a clay surface that melt together and form a decorative and protective glass surface
the cleaning of the bottom (foot) of a glazed piece before firing
Fusion Point
the temperature at which clay or glaze materials melt
the melting agent in glaze
a distortion of the pot in the drying process because of uneven wall thickness or when a kiln does not heat uniformly
the separation of the glaze from the body; can be caused when glaze is applied too thick or to a dusty surface
3 Ways to Apply Glaze
brush, dip, pour
glaze which is solid in color, can not "see through" the color after fired
a glaze that is clear, no color is seen after fired
glazes that have very little color and allow the undersurface to show through after fired
"shiny" finish, high in luster and brightness
"flat" or "dull" finish