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49 Cards in this Set

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autosome
any non-sex chromosome
binary fission
asexual reproduction in which one cell divides into two cells of that have identical DNA
cancer
cells which have mutations of the cell DNA, these mutated cells cause normals to mutate
cell cycle
consists of a cell growth period in which DNA is synthesized and a cell division period in which mitosis takes place
centromere
point where two chromatids are attached
chromatid
two exact copies of DNA that make up the chromosome
chromosome (eukaryotic)
structure in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein
chromosome (prokaryotic)
the main ring of DNA
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm of a cell
diploid
a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
gamete
a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
gene
segment of DNA that codes for a pretein or RNA molecule
haploid
when a cell contains one set of chromosomes
homologous chromosome
two chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
How many chromosomes do humans have
23 pairs or 46 chromosomes
interphase
period between meiotic division during which the cell grows, copies DNA, and synthesizes protein
karyotype
array of chromosomes found in cells at metaphase of mitosis and arragned in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
mitosis (eukaryotic)
process of cell division that forms two nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
sex chromosome
one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
spindle
network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromotids to the poles
zygote
cell that results from the fission of gametes, a fertilized egg
asexual reproduction
reproduction in which a single parent produce offspring that are identical to the parent
clone
an organism genectically identical to his parent, it is produced by asexual reproduction
crossing-over
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosome during meiosis
fertilization
joining of a male and female gamete to form a diploid zygote
gametophyte
the haploid phase that produces gametes by mitosis
Homologous pairs of chromosome move to opposite poles during what phase?
anaphase I
In sporophyte generation of plants, what kind of spores are produced through meiosis?
haploid spores
independent assortment
random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
life cycle
entire life span of an organism from one generation to the next, all of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity
meiosis
process during cell divisions in which the number of chromosomes decrease by half which results in the production of a sex cell (gamete or spore)
oogenesis
the production, growth, & maturation or an egg or ovum
ovum
mature egg cell
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite, diploid from each Mom and Dad unit to produce a haploid which produces a diploid offspring
sperm
the male gamete
spermatogenesis
the process by which male gametes form
spore
reproductive cell of multicellular structure that is resistant to environmental conditions and that can develop into an adult without fusion with another cell
sporophyte (plants & algae)
the diploid phase in the life cycle that produces haploid spores
What does spermatogenesis produce?
four haploid cells which change into sperm (male gamete)
What are the stages of meiosis?
Prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, Telophase I and cytokinesis, Prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, Telophase II and cytokinesis
What happens during prophase I?
nuclear envelope breaks and cross-over occurs
What happens during metaphase I?
humologous chromosomes move by the spindle to the cell's equator
What happens during anaphase I?
homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell
What happens during telophase I and cytokinesis?
the cell splits forming two new cells, each with it's own set chromosomes
What happens during prophase II?
new spindle forms around the chromosomes
What happens during metaphase II?
chromosomes line up at the equator
What happens during anaphase II?
centromeres divide, chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell
What happens during telophase II?
nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes, cytoplasm divides, results in 4 haploid cells
What is the life cycle of the alternation of generations?
spores-gametophytes-mitosis-gametes-fertilization-zygotes-sporophytes-spore forming cells-meiosis-spores