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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fallacies
misleading arguments or false causes
understanding fallacies
understand what rules they break
hypothetical syllogism
if p then q
if q then r
therefore if p then r
disjunctive syllogism
p or q
not -p
therefore q
dilemma
p or q
if p then r
if q then s
therefore r or s
ad misericordiam
appealing to pity as an argument for special treatment
ad populum
appealing to the emotions of the crowd
affirming the consequent
a deductive fallacy
if p then q
q
therefore p
begging the question
implicitly using your conclusion as a premise (fallacies)
complex question
posing an issue in such a way that people can't agree or disagree
red hearing
an irrelevant subject that diverts the attention from the main argument
weasel word
changing the meaning of a word in the middle of your argument so that your conclusion can be maintained
ad ignorantiam
arguing that a claim is true just because it has not been shown to be false (fallacies)
affirming the consequent
if p then q
q
therefore p (Falacies)
Denying the antecedent
a deductive falacie
if p then q
~ P
Therefore ~q
Modus Ponens [MP]
if p then q
p
therefore q
Modus Tollens [MT]
mode of taking
if p then q
~q
Therefore ~ p
Hypothetical Syllogism [HS]
if p then q
if q then r
therefore if p then r
Disjuntive Syllogism [DS]
p or q
~P
Therefore Q
Dilemma
p or q
if p then r
if q then s
therefore r or s
Constructive Dilemma
CD = (P then Q) x (R then S)
P or R
Q or S
Simplification
A x B
A
B
Conjunction
AxB
ad hominem
attacking the person of the authority
ad misericordiam
appel to pity
ad populum
appel to emotions of the crowd
affirming the consequent
if p then q
Q
Therefore P (Fallacy)
begging the question
using your conclusion as a premise
Circular argument
using your conclusion as a premise (same as begging the question)
complex question
Posing a question people cannot agree or disagree with
denying the antecent
if p then q
~P
Therefore ~Q (fallacy)
Equivocation
stick to one meaning for each term (weasel word)
False cause
questionable conclusion about cause and effect
false dilemma
reducing the options you consider to two, is unfair to other side
loaded laguage
avoid it! avoid language whse only function is to sway the emotions
non sequitur
a conclusion that does not follow and is not reasonable from the evidence
person who fallacy
Background information is crucial
persuasive definition
appear straightforward but in fact is loaded
petitio principii
putting your conclusion in your premise (same as begging the question)
Poisioning the well
using loaded language to disparage an argument
post hoc, ergo propter hoc
(after this, therefore because of this)
red herring
an irrelevant subject brought in to divert from main argument
straw man
caricaturing an opposing view so that it is easy to refute
weasel word
changing the meaning of a word in the middle of the argument so the conclusion stays true