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44 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Fallacies

misleading arguments or false causes


understanding fallacies

understand what rules they break


hypothetical syllogism

if p then q
if q then r therefore if p then r 

disjunctive syllogism

p or q
not p therefore q 

dilemma

p or q
if p then r if q then s therefore r or s 

ad misericordiam

appealing to pity as an argument for special treatment


ad populum

appealing to the emotions of the crowd


affirming the consequent

a deductive fallacy
if p then q q therefore p 

begging the question

implicitly using your conclusion as a premise (fallacies)


complex question

posing an issue in such a way that people can't agree or disagree


red hearing

an irrelevant subject that diverts the attention from the main argument


weasel word

changing the meaning of a word in the middle of your argument so that your conclusion can be maintained


ad ignorantiam

arguing that a claim is true just because it has not been shown to be false (fallacies)


affirming the consequent

if p then q
q therefore p (Falacies) 

Denying the antecedent

a deductive falacie
if p then q ~ P Therefore ~q 

Modus Ponens [MP]

if p then q
p therefore q 

Modus Tollens [MT]

mode of taking
if p then q ~q Therefore ~ p 

Hypothetical Syllogism [HS]

if p then q
if q then r therefore if p then r 

Disjuntive Syllogism [DS]

p or q
~P Therefore Q 

Dilemma

p or q
if p then r if q then s therefore r or s 

Constructive Dilemma

CD = (P then Q) x (R then S)
P or R Q or S 

Simplification

A x B
A B 

Conjunction

AxB


ad hominem

attacking the person of the authority


ad misericordiam

appel to pity


ad populum

appel to emotions of the crowd


affirming the consequent

if p then q
Q Therefore P (Fallacy) 

begging the question

using your conclusion as a premise


Circular argument

using your conclusion as a premise (same as begging the question)


complex question

Posing a question people cannot agree or disagree with


denying the antecent

if p then q
~P Therefore ~Q (fallacy) 

Equivocation

stick to one meaning for each term (weasel word)


False cause

questionable conclusion about cause and effect


false dilemma

reducing the options you consider to two, is unfair to other side


loaded laguage

avoid it! avoid language whse only function is to sway the emotions


non sequitur

a conclusion that does not follow and is not reasonable from the evidence


person who fallacy

Background information is crucial


persuasive definition

appear straightforward but in fact is loaded


petitio principii

putting your conclusion in your premise (same as begging the question)


Poisioning the well

using loaded language to disparage an argument


post hoc, ergo propter hoc

(after this, therefore because of this)


red herring

an irrelevant subject brought in to divert from main argument


straw man

caricaturing an opposing view so that it is easy to refute


weasel word

changing the meaning of a word in the middle of the argument so the conclusion stays true
