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55 Cards in this Set

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How did the Surahs get their names?
Names of the Surahs were not Tawqeef (Revelation) -> Only some given by the prophet
How many Makki Surahs
82
Number of Madani Surahs
20
How many words in the Qur'an
77,439
How many letters in the Qur'an
340,740
Last Ayah Revealed
(2:281)

وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ

"And fear the Day when ye shall be brought back to Allah."

or 2nd opinion

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ

"They ask thee for a legal decision. Say: Allah directs (thus) about those who leave no descendants or ascendants as heirs."

(4:176)
Surahs in Dispute Makkee vs Madanee
12
First Surah Revealed
Mudathir
Last Surah Revealed
Nasr
First Ayah Revealed
Iqra (96:1)
Types of Ayahs revealed for a reason
1) Answer a question
2) Clarify incident/ give ruling
3) Caution or warn believers
Makkan Surahs (Characteristics)
1) Tawheed
2) Warning Against Shirk
3) Refutations of idolaters
4) the word 'Kalla'
5) Eloquence
6) Brevity
7) Stories of previous nations
Madinan Surahs (Characteristics)
1) Jihad
2) Explain rulings
3) Expose hypocrites
4) Lengthy ayat
5) Easy style w/details
Reasons for Gradual Revelation
1) Assuring the prophet
2) Challenging non-muslims
3) Easing memorization and understanding
4) Easing implementation
5) Responding to incidents
6) Gradual legislation
What battle during the time of Abu Bakr prompted to compilation of the Qur'an
The Battle of Yamaamah
Who did Abu Bakr appoint to oversee the compilation of the Qur'an
Zayd ibn Thaabit
During whose Khilafah was the Qur'an first compiled?
Abu Bakr
What condition was placed for ayahs to be included in the compilation of the Qur'an
The ayah had to be written and had to have two witnesses that it was written in the presence of the prophet
Which ayahs only had one witness and who was the witness
-The last two ayahs of surah Al-Tawba
-Khuzaymah bin Thaabit (The prophet made his testimony worth two people)
The meaning of the disconnected letters (The different opinions)
i. There is a meaning: could be name of Allah, name of the Surah or an indication for the length of this Ummah
ii. Just alphabetical letters with no meaning
iii. Theres a meaning for it definitely, but Allah knows it
iv. We don’t discuss it, Allah knows best
Why was the Qur'an revealed
1. Reciting and memorizing
2. Pondering on the meaning
3. Applying it to our daily life
Technical definition of the Qur'an
A) The miraculous book of Allah
B) Revealed to Prophet Muhammad
C) Starting with Al-Fatihah and ending with An-Naas
Merits of Surah Al-Fatihah
- The greatest surah in the Qur'an (Hadith of Abu Sa`eed ibn Mu'alla in Bukhari)
- It is unmatched in the Tawrah, Injeel Zabur or Furqan (Hadith narr by Abu Hurayrah in Ahmad)
- No prayer without it
- It includes all of the meanings of the Qur'an
Virtues of Surah Al-Baqarah
- Those who recite Surah Al-Baqarah in their house provide protection from Shaytan
- Surah Al Baqarah along with Surah Al Imran will provide protection for you on the Day of Judgment
Characteristics of the Believers in Surah al-Baqarah
- Believe in ghaib
- Establish prayer
- Spend of what they are provided
- Believe in all messengers (Muhammad and those before him)
- Certainty in the Hereafter
Reasons for differences in Tafseer
1) Expression
2) Illustration
3) Ambiguity
4) Word Choice
Is the Qur'an Muhkam or Mutashabih or both?
Both of the terms have multiple meanings. One meaning (a general sense) of both terms apply to the entire Qur'an and then a second meaning (more specific definitions) apply to a subset of verses in the Qur'an based on how the verse can be approached and understood
1) All of the Qur'an is Muhkam in the sense of ihkaam meaning perfection
2) All of the Qur'an is Mutashaabih in the sense of mutashaabih meaning resemblance and similarity
3) Certain verses are Muhkam in that they have apparent meanings clear to most or all people
4) Certain verses are Mutashaabih in that their meanings are (initially) unclear to most people.
Topics Covered in Sciences of Qur'an
- Asbaab an-Nuzool (Reasons for Revelation)
- Makki vs Madanee
- Method of Revelation
- #'s of Surahs and Ayaat
- Stories of Quran
- Miracles of Quran
- Recitations
- Parables
- Its Preservation
- Divisions of it
- Scribing
- Waqf and Ibtida (Stopping and Beginning)
- First and last revelation
- 7 different ahruf
- Virtues of Quran
- Names of Quran
- Characteristics
- Abrogation
- Firsts
- Sciences derived from It
Scribes of Revelation
1) Abu Bakr,
2) Umar,
3) Uthman,
4) Ali
5) Az-Zubair,
6) Aamir b. Fuhairah,
7) Amr ibn Al-Aas,
8) Ubay ibn Ka'b
9) Abduallh ibn al-Arqam
10) Thabit ibn Qais ibn Shammas
11) Handhalah ibn Rabi al-Usaidi
12) Al-Mughirah b. Shu'bah
13) Abdullah ibn Rawahah
14) Khalid ibn Al-Walid
15) Khalid ibn Said ibn al-Aas (it was said he was the first)
16) Muaawiyyah b. Abi Sufyan
17) Zaid ibn Thabit (Zaid was the most proficient)
(Source: Zad al-Ma`ad)
Lessons/Benefits from Isti`adha (Seeking Refuge in Allah from Shaytan)
□ Allah commanded us to seek refuge because shaytaan does not relent if treated with kindness (where as human opponents may)
□ Shaytaan only seeks the destruction of human beings
□ Cleanses the mouth from foul speech
□ Prepares mouth to recite speech of Allah
□ Acknowledge's Allahs ability to do everything
□ Affirms servants meekness, weakness and inability
Meaning of Shaytan
- Shaytan comes from Shatana (the far thing)
Meaning of Ar-Rajeem
- Ar-Rajeem = being expelled from all types of righteousness
The Difference between Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Raheem
- Ar-Rahmaan - encompasses every type of mercy Allah has
- Ar-Raheem - the mercy given only to the believers
The meaning of Hamd
thanks, praise, love, humility and servatude
The meaning of Alameen
the worlds (everything that Allah created)
Meaning of Rabb
owner, creator, sustainer, organizer
SubTypes of Mutashaabih
1. Real Mutashaabih: All people will never be able to know the reality of it
2. Partial Mutashaabih: for some people, its difficult to understand
Interpreters of the Quran from the Sahabah
a. Ali ibn Ali Taalib
b. Ibn Abbas
c. Ibn Masoud
d. Ubay Ibn Ka'b
e. Also Abu Bakr and Umar
Interpreters of the Quran from the Tabi`een (Successors)
1) Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ata', ibn Abi Rabah => Students of Ibn Abbas (Makkah)
2) Qatada, Alqamah (teacher of teacher of Abu Hanifa) and Asha'bi => Students of Ibn Mas'ood (Kufah)
3) Abu 'Aaliyah, Zaid ibn Aslam => Students of Ubay ibn Ka'b (Madinah)
How to interpret the Qur'an
1. By The Qur'an itself
2. Sunnah
3. Companions
4. Successors
5. The Arabic Language
Technical Definition of Tafseer
Bayan Ma'aanil Qur'an = Explaining/Revealing the Meanings of the Quran
How Many Mutawaatir Qira`aat are there (total)?
20 Mutawaatir Qiraa`ah.
10 Qaris, each with 2 narrations from him.
Could be minor or major differences between the narrations.
Name the 10 Qurrah
1. Nafi (D 169)
2. Ibn Katheer (D 120)
3. Ibn Amir (D 118)
4. Abu Amr (D 154)
5. Asim (D127)
6. Hamza (D156)
7. Alkisaie (D189)
8. Abu Jafar (D 130)
9. Yaqub (D 205)
10. Khalaf (D 229)
Name the 7 things that account for the seven Ahruf
1. (Multiplicity) The difference in singular and plural [Al-Ikhtilaf Al-Ifrad Wal Jam`i]
2. (Conjugation) The difference in conjugation of the word
3. (Grammar) Difference in grammar
4. (Omission) Omitting or keeping a letter or word
5. (Placement) Advancing or delaying the mentioning of the word
6. (Alteration) Alteration (ibdaal) of a letter
7. (Pronunciation) Difference in dialect (pronunciation)
Name the four non mutawaatir Qira'aat
1. Ibn Muhaisin
2. Al Hasan al Basree
3. Al Amash
4. Al Yazeedi
Linguistic and Technical Meaning of Nifaaq
- Literally: Nafaq -> has something covered other than what you see
- Technical: Showing Islam and hiding disbelief
Subtypes of Nifaaq
1) Practical - in actions (maybe done by someone who is a Muslim)
2) In belief (what is meant in the ayahs of Surah Al-Baqarah)
What is the difference between establishing the prayer and just praying?
Establishment implies:
- Do it regularly
- Done over and over
- With khushoo`
- Pray on time
- Coming early
- Doing the acts fully
What are some of the names of Surah Al-Fatihah
- Umm Al-Kitab
- Al-Hamd
- As-Salaah
- Ash-Shifa (the Cure)
- Ar-Ruqyah
- Sabul Mathaanee (Seven often repeated verses)
Subcategories of Israeeliyaat
1) Reports we are sure to its authenticity b/c we have something to corroborate
2) Reports we know are false b/c of what we have
3) Reports we cannot confirm nor deny - allowed to narrate based on Hadith "…And narrate from the Children of Israel, as there is no sin in this…"
What verses in the Qur'an mention it as being Muhkam and Mutashaabih?
a. "Alif. Laam. Raa. These are the verses from the hakeem Book" (10:1)
b. "Alif. Laam. Raa. (This is a) Book the verses whereof are Perfected (uhkimat)" (11:1)
c. "Allah has sent down the best statements, a Book that is mutashaabih, oft-recited" (39:23)
d. "...In it are verses that are muhkam ... others are mutashaabih...." (3:7)
What is the difference between the Qira`aat and the Ahruf
The differences between the Qira`aat come from the differences between the ahruf.
Important grammatical principle mentioned for interpreting the Qur'an
the verb applies to the last mentioned pronoun
Necessary conditions for a legitimate recitation
1. Conformance to Arabic Language
2. Must be accomodated by the Mushaf of Uthman
3. Must be mutawaatir
If, as Allah says, the disbelievers will never believe why is the obligation for dawah still present?
- 7:164 When some of them said: "Why do ye preach to a people whom Allah will destroy or visit with a terrible punishment?"- said the preachers:" To discharge our duty to your Lord, and perchance they may fear Him."