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344 Cards in this Set

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Ahwahnee Principles
1991, at hte Ahwahnee Hotel, agroup met to present community principles that express new sustainable planning ideas. They wrote Community Principles; Regional Principles; Implementation Principles.
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
1st cost - acquiring and installing including taxes and financing
operating cost - cost of utilities
maintenance cost - includes repairs
periodic replacement - if necessary over the study period
residual value (resale value, scrap metal value, etc.)is determined from the endpoint of the study peiod and deducted from the total combined other costs to determine the life cycle cost of the product.
Costs are estimated over a period of time called the "study period."
The analysis part allows two or more products to be compared over their total life.
Matrix Costing
A type of economic analysis that evaluates cost elements in a broad matrix of interaction.
Sustainable Designs 5 goals
1. Use Less.
2. Recycle.
3. Use recyclable components
4. Use Biodegradable components
5. Do not deplete natural resources
Solar Design
Using the sunlight or solar radiation to supply a portion of the building's heat energy.
Passive Solar systems
Permit solar radiation to fall on areas of the building that benefit from the seasonal energy conditions of the structure.
Direct Gain: Allows solar radiation to flow directly into the space needing heat (ie: greenhouse effect, south facing windows.)
Indirect Gain system: Sunlight hits a thermal mass (trombe wall).
What is albedo?
Colors with higher reflectance. An albedo rating of 0.65 or higher is good in warm climates. (65 percent of solar radiation is reflected back into the atmosphere instead of being stored or transmitted through the roof.
Passive solar strategies
Sun control devices (sunshades)
Light-colored roofs
Optimized glazing
What is commissioning?
The organized process of making sure the building's systems are performing according to how they were designed. Includes: HVAC, MEP controls, ductwork, life safety systems, lighting controls, daylighting or thermal systems.
Supply water
Must be clean, clear, and potable (drinkable).
Generally under pressure and therefore sealed in smaller pipes than waste.
Waste water
The removal of contaminated water. Not under pressure, therefore must be drained by gravity and require larger pipes.
neutral water has pH of 7. rain water may be slightly acidic (pH of 6.0) Pollution can cause more acidity in rain (sulfuric acid). Acidity can corrode metal pipes.
Surface run-off and rain-water
May not be as healthy as water that has absorbed into the ground and undergone natural fitration.
Water filtering through the ground dissolves minerals such as calcium, magnesium, or limestone. Although harmless to humans it can redeposit on pipes and clog them.
what is an anode?
A piece of metal inserted into a hot water heater to divert deposits from forming on the heat exchanger.
Water softener
The process of removing mineral ions or combining them with something that will not solidify when the water is heated.
Zeolite or ion exchange
2-tank water softening system.
Hard water runs through zeolite tank and becomes soft as minerals stay behind. Then when zeolite tank needs to be recharged, it is backwashed to discharged clogged minerals and drains away. Then, it is regenerated with salt brine where sodium combines with calcium and magnesium and is drained away. finally, zeolite is rinsed to remove excess salt and returend to normal use.
static head and water pressure (psi)
inches or feet of water that can be supported by a given pressure. 1 psi can lift a column of water 2.3 feet high. [2.3 feet/psi or 0.433psi/foot]
When should a pressure regulator be considered?
if water pressures exceed 80psi to keep water pressure in the 40-60psi range.
Downfeed water supply system
this system is selected if the building is too tall or pressure is too low.
a tank on the roof supplies water to the upper stories. pressure is determined by the height of the outlet on the tank above a given floor.
the height of the zone served is determined by the maximum allowable pressure at the fixtures - usually 40-60psi. Thus max height is about 138ft (1psi = 2.3ft)

water can be pushed up, but not sucked up any higher than 33 feet due to atmospheric pressure.
Pneumatic system
a pressurized tank in the basement used an air tank.
tankless system
uses one or more variable speed pumps which constantly turn on or off to provide sufficient pressure at whatever demand rate the building requires.
flow rate
Gallons per minute
friction loss
a function of flow rate and the diameter of a pipe. the smaller the diameter, the greater the friction at a constant flow rate.the greater the flow rate, the greater the friction at a constant diameter.
water heater
rated by its volume and recharge rate.
Continuous loop system
utilizing a recirculation pump to continuously move hot water in a loop through the building. Some heat is lost, but water is conserved.
instantaneous hot water system
(aka in-flow heater) all fixtures are supplied only with cold water and is heated just as the hot water faucet is turned on. higher first cost. Flow rate is compromised.
thermal expansion
change in Length = Lk(T2-T1)
k = coeffiecent of expansion
T1 = original temp
T2 = final temp
Pipe supports
strapping, trapeze hangers, clevis hangers.
Plastic: @ 4' o.c. min
Copper: @ 6' o.c. min
Steel:@ 12' o.c. min
Soil line
carry the water from toilets, urinals
waste lines
carry the water from everything but the toilets and urinals.
Vent Stacks - collects all of the vents
Stack Vents - the vent that extends of through the roof after the last soil line
Soil stacks - a vertical pipe that collects the soil and wast lines.
minimum diameter is 1-1/4" of 1/2 the diameter of the smallest drain it serves.
ADA accessibility - toilets
ANSI A117.1 is the national standard for access.
Toilets - 19" high
grab bars - 33" to 36" high
5' clear diameter from 10" off the floor.
ADA accessibility - lavatories
provide clearance for legs beneath the sink.
insulate exposed hot water lines
large hand lever controls
ADA accessibility - fountains
32" - 36" aff. protrude from wall.
Designed to catch debris. required for restaurants where excess grease could create problems for sewage treatment. Clean-out access and trap are included.
one is required where building drain joins the sewer system.
Required every 50' for pipes under 4" diameter; every 100' for larger pipes; where ever the pipe changes direction sharper than 45 degrees.
used for lines 10" or greater. 150' intervals, provide access for inspection.
Sewage treatment systems
public systems
Cesspools - cheapest, least desireable.
Septic tank - waste settles out and effluent leaches into leach fields. sized based on 100gal/day/person
Leach field - underground grid of ceramic pipe in a gravel field.
Steel pipe
schedule 40 (standard wall thickness)
typically joined mechanically
Copper pipe
Often used for supply piping.
Does not rust
Three categories: K, L, M. Type M is thinnest and most common
Joined by soldering.Advantage is that pipe pieces can be re-used.
Plastic Pipe
Two types: PVC - usually used for supply
ABS - usually used for drainage
plastic does not corrode or allow electrolysis that deposits mineral ions.
deteriorated in UV light.
Gate valve
intended for solely on or off. creates turbulence if it is partially on.
Minimum restriction when on.
Globe valve
Used to meter or throttle the flow of water.
Restrict flow even when wide open.
Check valve
a backflow preventer.
Angle valve
Often found on typical plumbing fixtures and appliances.Includes a metering capability.
Pressure relief valves
safety devices that keep systems from explodingby opening when the pressure exceeds some preset maximum. required on water heaters.
Surge arrestors
a cushion or device that dampens the effect of water hammer by providing an air filled chamber in the pipe.
Fixture Unit (FU)
an arbitrary unit used for pipe sizing. The likelihood that all fixtures will be used simultaneously.
what is sensible heat?
the transfer of heat that causes a change in temperature.
What is latent heat?
The transfer of heat that causes a change of state without a change in temperature.
What is specific heat?
The capacity of a specific material to store heat at the same temperature. [Cp]
Measured by comparing it to the storage capacity of water.
Specific heat is measured in terms of the number of Btu's it takes to change the temperature of a specific material by 1 degree F.
What is a Btu?
British Thermal Unit: a measure of the heat energy it takes to raise one pound of water 1 degree farhenheit.
method by which heat is transferred between two objects not in contact and not sheilded from one another. heat always moves from warm to cold.
The rate of radiative exchange is based on the surface temperature of the two objects, the viewed angle, and emissivity.
property of a material. the same as the absorptivity. Surfaces with high emissivity radiate at a faster rate. Black has a higher emissivity than white or shiny surfaces.
Selective surface
has high absorptivity but low emissivity. ie: solor panels.
measure of how easily radiant energy can transfer through an object. Glass has LOW transmissivity causing the "greenhouse effect"
Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT)
The average radiant temperature of the surroundings. Independent of air temperature.
Globe thermometer
Measures Mean Radiant Temperature
the heat exchange process that occurs only in a fluid medium such as air or liquid. The only means of heat transfer that is directional due to gravity. Hot air is lighter and less dense. It can transfer heat horizontally only by stirring the air.
The stack effect
when the pressure is greater at the top of a space than at the bottom, thus causing outward pressure at the top and inward pressure at the bottom.
heat transfer process that occurs when objects are in direct contact.
Conductivity (k)
Conductance (C)
Each material has a different conductivity (k). Specific thicknesses of a material have a calculated Conductance(C). For example: 3.5" of insulation has a (C) value of 0.077 whereas gravel has a (k) value of 1.66 / inch.
Resistivity (r)
Resistance (R)
Resistance (R) is calculated from the thickness of a material (x) and the conductivity (k)
x/k = R
the sum of the reciprocal of R.
U = 1/(R1+R2+R3+...)
Phase change
a form of heat transfer such as liquid to vapor. Latent heat of evaporation is 1,000 Btu's/pound for water.
Heat load
the sum of all the losses through the skin.
Conduction (Qc)
Measures the flow of heat at any given instant. Heat flow is the product of the conductance of the assembly (U-value), temp difference between inside and outside, area of exposed surface.
qc = (U)(changeT)(A)
the measure of energy flow rate per unit of time at any given instant. If a certain flow rate continued for 1 hour, then that many Btu's would be transferred.
Degree Day
1 degree day is defined as a day whose 24-hour mean temperature is 1 degree below the reference temperature of 65 degrees. ALL days with a mean temp above 65 degrees are disregarded.
3,000 DD winter would be mild whereas 7,000 DD winter would be harsh. Used to calculate actual Btu's lost and therefore used to calculated fuel consumption and size of system needed.
Design Day
A day colder than 98% of the days experienced in that climate. Heating equipment is sized to keep the building warm on this day. Used to determine the rate of heat loss through Btu/h
Slab on Grade Conduction values q_s
Measured in length of perimeter (ft) x factor (per MEEB table 4.8)
It varies depending on whether or not the perimeter is insulated.
Infiltration Load (q_i)
The energy required to heat infiltrated outside air. Determine the amount of air infiltration and the amount of heating needed to make up for it.
air change method
method of determining the amount of air infiltration.
requires that you know the number of air changes per hour.
Q_cfh = N x V
N = number of air changes
V = building volume (ft3)
(expressed in cubic feet / hour)
Crack method
method of determining the amount of air infiltration.
linear feet of crack in all windows. Determined from a table that considers wind speed and window type. (ie: double hung windows need to include center mullion)
Qs(slab)+ Qi (infiltration)+ Qc(wall, window, and roof U-values)
q_p (people load)
q_p = # of people x Btuh/pers
(per Table for various activities)
q_l (Lighting Load
q_l = 3.4 W
W = wattage of the equipment
q_m (Equipment)
q_m = 1,500 x Bhp
Bhp = brake horsepower
1 Bhp = 2,545 Btuh
q_CLTD (Cooling Load Temp Differential)
= U x A x CLTD
use tables
q_r (SHGF) solar heat gain factor
calculating the radiant heat gain through glass.
SHGF = S_g (SC) A
S-g = the intensity on a surface area
SC = shading coefficient
A = area exposed to direct sun
radiant heat gain through glass
Shading Coefficient (SC)
the percentage transmitted compared to that which is transmitted by clear glass.
Total heat stored in the air (sensible heat + latent heat)
Relative humidity
percentage of complete saturation (how much water is in the air at a certain temperature compared to how much the air could hold at that temp.
Comfort range or comfort zone
range of temperature and RH comfortable for most people
65deg-78deg; 25%-75%RH
Also affected by other factors such as MRT and wind velocity.
effective temperature
combination of ambient temperature (dry bulb) and MRT. If MRT is hight, then ambient temp can be lower and still feel comfortable.
declination angle
the tilt of the earth in relation to the position of the sun.
Dec 21st: Declination angle = -23.5 deg.
altitude angle
describes the height of the sun in the sky
azimuth angle
describes the compass orientation of the sun's position in the sky. Measured either east or west of due south.
Profile angle
= altitude angle at noon. angle of the sun's shadow line.
Direct normal intensity
a hypothetical receiving surface is perpendicular to the solar vector of the sun
Prototypical climates (4)
Hot Humid
Hot Arid
dew point Temperature
RH = 100%
using convection to suck air through the building (the stack effect)
Active solar systems - Open Loop
The water going through the loop will be consumed (ie: hot water supply)
Active solar systems - Closed Loop
uses one medium that continuously runs through a loop and heat exchanger without touching the water supply.
Active solar systems - Drain down & Drain back
Solve the freezing problems by draining the loop when temps get too low
Dessicant cooling
using active solar energy to bake all of the moisture out of a dessicant, then passing outside air through it to absorb all of the moisture from the air. The air is then sprayed with water to extract the heat in the form of evaporation, thus cooling the incoming air.
Absorption Regfrigeration Cycle
The sun is used to evaporate moisture out of a brine solution (lithium bromide) unitl it reaches saturation. Then, the solution is used to absorb water vapor from a second source of clear water, thus increasing the evaporation rate.
External Combustion Air
The introduction of of outside air solely for the purpose of combustion within the boiler.
Gravity Feed
The use of convection only to movin supply air up through the building by placing the furnace in the basement.
Downdraft furnace
the method of reversing convection by drawing the air down through the furnace.
evaporative chiller
Cooling tower. used to exhaust hot, humid air. there is constant water loss due to evaporation. Contaminants within the water supply must be removed via a "blowdown" (a small valve that drains contaminants off.)
Heat pump
the refrigeration cycle in reverse. much more energy efficient because heat is being moved back and forth instead of being created. Furnaces = 80% efficiency, Heat pumps = 300% energy efficiency above 32%...
Coefficient of performance
energy delivered / energy used
typical COP = 2.3
Thermostatic Expansion Valve
A type of valve used in the refrigeration cycle. TXV.
system distribution types
electrical, hydronic, forced air
Electrical distribution systems
Lowest in first cost, most expensive in life cycle costs.
2 kinds: radiant heat, baseboard heat.
Hydronic distribution system
The circulation of hot water or steam.1,2,3, or 4-pipe system.
Single pipe - Low first cost, first register is hot but temperature decreases with each successive register. can only be run sort distances.
2-pipe: uses separate supply and return.supply water is the same temperature for each register.
3-pipe: one pipe for hot water, one pipe for cold and both hot water and cold water mix in the same return pipe.
4-pipe: used when both heating and cooling are desired. two separate registers are required - water returns in two separate pipes.
forced air systems
distribute air via supply ducts.
deck temperature
the temperature of the air as it leaves the the AHU.
Single Duct system
mostly residential
Constant Volume
all ducts have the same amount of air. the furnace runs until the thermostat temperature is achieved.
the rate of heating can be achieved by utilizing dampers at each diffuser.
Constant Volume with electric reheat
supply cooled constant volume air at a constant temperature to all spaces. each space has an electric resistance heater to achieve the desired temperature.
Dual Duct (double duct)
Constant air - both heated air and cooled air are simultaneously and separately ducted to a mixing box ahead of the diffuser. Requires twice the amount of ductwork, but provides more control over individual spaces. air flow rate is constant.Ideal for long, linear buildings with many zones
Multi-zone system
constant air - the mixing boxes are inside the mechanical room and pre-mixed before being ducted to different zones. ideal for square buildings with few zones.
Fan coil system
constant air - can heat and cool simultaneously very efficiently. this system utilized a single duct and cold and hot water pipes. each unit has a fan and two coils. First cost is high (this is a 3 or 4-pipe system)
Variable Air Volume System
(VAV) Most efficient system. a single duct system serving a specific zone and temperature is controlled by varying the flow of air.
Unitary system
(Like monett)
One unit for each zone. air comes directly from the outside. Utilized most efficiently where a building is very spread out or there is no space for ductwork. used when each zone must have a separate bill.
heat pump system
First cost is a little higher. water is circulated throughout the building (called a heat sink). each zone has its own heat pump and gives off or takes heat from the water line. if all zones are using cooling, then the water line is run through a chiller.
a system in which a small amount of air is delivered at high velocity and mixed with return air causing greater air flow.
Plant sizing
5-10% of the building's floor area.
Determining Loads
Heating loads are expressed in 1,000 Btu's/hour or kBtuh.

Cooling loads are expressed in tons. 1 ton = 12,000Btuh. This is the rate of heat transfer required to melt a 32 degree ton of ice into a 32 degree ton of water in a 24-hour period.
Required capacity can be determined by Total Heat Gain (Btu/hr) / 12,000
Duct sizing
Appropriate velocities range from 300fpm - 2,000fpm.
most efficient duct size is one with the least perimeter = circle.
often specified in "equivalent circular diameter" the circular diameter that would result in the necessary cross sectional area.

A = 144xQ_cfm / V
A = cross sectional area of duct in inches
v = velocity (f/m)
Q_cfm = flow rate in cfm
A prescriptive code. the most popular energy code.
The dept. of Energy provides benchmark information on a variety of building types throughout the US. these help measure energy efficiency standards.
an organized process to ensure that all building systems perform interactively according to the intent of the architectural and engineering design. includes HVAC,MEP, life safety systems, renewable energy systems, lighting and daylighting.Required for LEED
electricity (I = V/R)
three main factors:
potential: Voltage (V) volts (like water pressure)

Current: Current (I) amperes (like flow rate, gal/minute)
Resistance: Resistance (R) ohms (like friction)
Series resistances
several resistances along a flow path.
Effective total R = R1+R2+R3...
parallel resistances
multiple flow paths with different resistances and different flow rates in each path.
Effective total resistance:
1/R = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3...
Direct Current (DC)
Current that flows in only one direction with constant (V) voltage. Used in batteries, elevators, low-voltage applications such as signal systems, controls, etc. Does not require a transformer.
P = V x I
P = power (watts)
V = Voltage
I = Current (Amperes)
Alternating Current (AC)
The direction of the flow of electricity can be reversed very quickly because it has virtually no inertia. this is accomplished by reversing the voltage
a machine that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
60 Hertz
in AC power, the typical frequency is 60 cycles/second. in Europe, it is 50 Hertz. The common household voltage is 110 volts where in Europe it is 220 volts.
Three-phase power
creating 3 separate sine waves at equal intervals (120 degrees)
used to step-up or step-down the voltage in a circuit. Step-up transformers are used to transmit power over long distances without excessive voltage drop, while step-down transformers are used to step down the voltages for more manageable household needs.
wasted energy converts to heat, thus a transformer is identified by its capacity to handle heat without exploding, not by its voltage capacity. The thermal rating = VxA. a 1,000VA unit would be abreviated KVA.
Transformers should be properly ventilated to stay cool. If they were to explode, the fluid used to draw off heat could vaporize, therefore, it is necessary to place the transformer in a fire proof vault or outside the building.
Transformers are either dry, oil-filled, or silicone filled.
used as input to the transformer
Used for output from the transformer.
Circuit sizing
any circuit carrying a motor should be oversized 1.25 to determine the wire size. motors should only be no greater than 80% of circuit capacity. or if a circuit is expected to operate for 3 hours or more.
sized by its interior diameter. National Electric Code specifies how many wires can fit into a conduit. The number of conductors permited in a conduit depends on the type of conductors, the size of the conductors, and the size of the conduit.
The quantity is limited to prevent heat build up and to prevent damage to the insulating jackets while pulling the wires.
Rigid conduit
same thickness as sch 40 pipe. safest kind of conduit.
Intermediate Metallic Conduit (IMC)
less expensive, thinner, and generally considered acceptable as rigid conduit when compared to "rigid conduit"
electrical metallic tubing (EMC)
thinnest rigid conduit. galvanized. uses clip connections. sometimes referred to as "thin-wall"
Flexible metal conduit
can be installed with or without a water proof jacket. Sometimes called "flex" or Greenfield (brand name). can be installed anywhere except underground.
interlocked armored cable
pre-wrapped wires encased in an interlocking metal spiral. cannot be installed underground or in concrete. No wires can be added in the field. cannot pull wires through it. Designated BX cable.
sheathed wire (nonmetallic sheathed cable)
residential (Romex). consisted of 2 live wires and 1 ground wire. Inexpensive to installe because it can be strung in walls without conduit, but not underground or concrete.
Designated as type NM or NMC.
Voltage Drop
cannot exceed 3% drop in a lighting circuit and 5% drop in a circuit supporting motors.
estimating the overall electrical load
Wattage / sf
7.2 = low
11 = med
15.7 = high
used to break a circuit ifthe current exceeds a certain rate of flow. Cannot be re-used. glass plug or fiber cartridge.
Circuit Breaker
a shut-off device that disconnects if current exceeds a certain rate. more expensive than fuses but can be re-used. used also to disconnect an area, or while working on equipment. simple, require no replacement, low maintenance.
Ground Fault Circuit Interruptor (GFCI)
A shut-off device that can detect continual current lost to the ground even when the power is shut off.
Required on any 15 or 20 amp circuit that serves a bathroom, garage or outdoors.
a safety precaution to direct current directly to the ground in the case of a short circuit.
Service Drop
services arriving to the site. Includes:
wires from the main line, transformer, meter, and a disconnect switch.
Commercial buildings measure total watt hours consumed, but peak demand as well. Demand surcharge - charge associated with peak demand.
Light Transmission
Light passing through an object
Light Reflection
light bouncing back from an object. if the reflected image is maintained, it's called specular, if it is not, its called diffused.
Light Refraction
Light bending due to passing through an object (straw in a glass appears bent at the interface)
Light Absorption
when no light passes through an object, and no light is bounced back, it is absorbed.
Color Rendering Index (CRI)
How well a light shows true color. the best is 100.
Light - Intensity (I)
the amount of light coming from a source. it is measured in units called candle power (cp)
Light - Flux
the amount of light flowing through a 1ft square exactly 1 ft from a one candle power source is called 1 lumen. the flow through the theoretical surface is called the flux.
Light - Illumination
if we place a candle 1 foot from a blackboard, there would be 1 lumen arriving in 1 sf area of the blackboard - this is the illumination. it is measured as 1 footcandle.
Light - Luminance
The amount of light reflected from a surface (dependent upon the reflectivity of the material) determines luminance. (this determines how bright something appears because we only see reflected light) it is measured in footLambert.
Light - Inverse Square Law
E - I/d squared
E = illumination (fc)
I = Intensity (cp)
d = distance (ft)
If you double the distance, you quarter the foot candles.
Lighting - Incandescent
uses a filament, most inefficient 15-18 lumens/watt, short lifetime (2,000 hours, warmer colors, measured in watts and 1/8" increments (ie: an A-19 defines the shape and it is 19x1/8" = 2.375" in diameter.
Tungsten - Halogen lights can run at higher temperatures and therefore have better color and slightly longer life.
Lighting - Fluorescent
passes a current through a tube of gases. much more efficient. requires a transformer because electricity will not arc through at 110 volts. A ballast controls the current and the voltage to the lamp. Ballasts are noisy. sound rating from A (the quietest) to E.
Average lifetime is 10,000 hours; 60-80 lumens/watt
Lighting - High Intensity Discharge (HID)
Consists of a lamp within a lamp, and runs at very high voltage.
Ranked in efficiency: Mercury vapor (bluish light - 24,000 hr lifetime
Metal Halide (better color - 10,000 hr)
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) - 24,000 hr
Low pressure sodium - highest ratings, longest life, but everything is black and yellow. used for security only.
Artificial Lighting measurements
Zonal cavity method - good for multiple lights.
accounts for reflectivity of surrounding surfaces as well as the efficiency of the lamps, how dirty they are, how old they are, typicla operating temperature, lumen depreciation, etc.
Number of luminaires =
(footcandles)(area of the room) /
(number of lamps)(lumens per lamp)(CU)(LLF)
CU = coefficient of Utilization - the efficiency of the luminaire. measured in 0.1 - 1.00
LLF = Light Loss factor - fraction of the amount of light lost due to multiple factors: lumen depreciation, dirt depreciation, etc.

Point-Grid method - good for single light, ignores surrounding reflections, measures orientation and distance.
Illumination Engineering Society (IES)
Published reference manual that established a variety of light levels (in footcandles) that are considered appropriate for different activities and situations. Standard is 2.3W/sf maximum.

Most codes require that the consultant establish a power budget based on the typology of the building and then try to meet that budget. This implies that only task lighting needs to meet the IES recommended foot candles, and background lighting can be 1/3 of that.
Candlepower Distribution Curve
Photometric tables
Equivalent Spherical Illumination
optimum lighting level described by a theoretical sphere surrounding the object being lit.
Calculating daylight in a space: Lumen Method
calculated in 3 spots: 5' from the window, middle of the room, and 5' from the back wall. calculation works on both cloudy and clear days, cannot calculate corner windows.
Calculating daylight in a space:Daylight Factor Method
assumes cloudy days.can calculate daylight at any location in the room. expressed as a percentage of the daylight hitting the outside surface.
basic unit of sound intensity level. named by Alexander Graham Bell.
Sound intensity
measured in power (watts/cm squared)
Intensity Level (IL)
measured in decibels. most commomly used method of measuring sound.
Sound Power Level (PWL)
used to measure sound at the source.
Human ear
more sensitive to sounds in the middle frequency than those high and low. Can hear 20 Hz - 20,000Hz range, but more sensitive to 125 hz - 6,000Hz
Threshhold of hearing 0dB
Threshhold of pain 130dB
Average office 50dB
Conversation 60dB
developed requirements intended to limit the exposure to high noise limits in places of employment.
a discrete reflextion of a single sound, usually delayed.
a continuous reflection of sound
the acoustical measure of reflectivity and absorptivity, designated by greek alpha symbol. the absorptivity of sound/ sf varies from 0 sabin (no sound is absorbed) to 1.0 sabin (al sound is absorbed)
Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)
the total absorptivity of a space averaged between 250Hz - 2,000Hz.
Noise Reduction (NR)
The difference in the Intensity Level (IL) between two reverberant rooms. The wall between determines the transmission loss (TL)
Transmission Loss (TL)
an ideal wall would transmit a fraction of the sound hitting it from the source room to the other room.
Rule of thumb: for every doubling of mass, there is an increase of 5-6dB in TL.
Sound Transmission Class (STC)
a method of rating building assemblies or materials in terms of their resistance to sound transmission.
building codes often have a minimum values for residential units: STC 50 for walls, floors, ceilings.
Impact Noise
erratic sounds - footfalls, dropping objects, mechanical equipment vibration, etc.
Impact Isolation Class (IIC)
the measured rating of certain floor/ceiling assemblies.
Methods of controlling noise from mechanical equipment
1. rigidly mount the motor to a sub base.
2. isolate the unit and sub-base from the pad by isolation pads, runbner, cork, neoprene, etc.
3. mount the unit on a concrete pad.
4. flexible connections from the mechanical equip. to the distribution lines, conduit, etc.
Fire Protection Code Goals
1. Provide protection or evacuation of the occupants.
2. Maintain structural integrity to allow firefighters safe access
3. reduce economic damage so that the structure may be repaired afterwards.
a possible 4. Reduce the risk of fires starting.
Occupancy classification
Occupancy groups
Construction type
this determines the building's fire resistance.
Types 1-5; 1 most fire resistant, 5 typical wood stud construction
Building location
proximity to other structures determines the required fire resistance rating of exterior walls so that fire fighters have time to extinguish the fire within one building before the entire block of buildings is consumed.
the separation of portions of a building for fire containment. compartmentation can provide areas of refuge in high-rise buildings where evacuation is not always possible. it can give firefighter time to combat the fire. also applies to the entire building to prevent adjacent structures from catching fire.
Fusible Link
a self -closing device in a fire-rated assembly that melts when the ambient temperature exceeds usually 165 degrees, thus closing the door.
panic Hardware
a door latching hardware that will release if pressure is applied as if a person were stumbling into it.
Classes of Fires
Class A: ordinary materials - wood, paper, rubber. Extinguishable by water
Class B: flammable materials - gasoline, oil, kerosene. Must be extinguished by something other than water.
Class C Fire: electrical equipment fire. must be extinguished by a non-conductive medium.
class D fire: combustible materials - magnesium, sodium, potassium. Cannot be extinguished with water. requires special extinguishers.
Special Extinguishing media
Halon - not toxic briefly, but it displaces oxygen. used on class B and C.
Good for sensitive material like art, computers, etc.
Ion Detector
detect the products of combustion even before the fire starts. Can detect kitchen smoke and cigarette smoke.Considered an early warning detector. Not appropriate around kitchens. Need to be replaced about one every 5 years because they have a tiny bit of radioactive material in them.
photoelectric sensors
Detect smoke in the air when it passes in front of an infrared sensor. can sense a smoldering fire. not as sensitive as the ion detector.
the point at which heated gases gathered at the ceiling suddenly reach the point of combustion and burst into flame or explode.
heat actuated sensor (rise-of-temperature detector)
function similar to a fusible link. a material melts at a certain temperature and triggers the alarm. rarley causes a false alarm, but much damage is done by the time the alarm goes off.
intended to distribute large quantities of water to each floor from which the fire fighters can connect their hoses and distribute enough water to where it is needed.
Dry standpipe (Class I): large diameter (4" or 6") water pipe that runs up the inside of the building with a 2.5" outlet on each floor. it has a siamese connection on the outside of the building for the fire department. The fire fighters provide their own hoses. no concern of rust or freezing because they are not connected to a water supply. Standpipe is pressurized by pumper trucks during an event.
Wet standpipe (Class II): primarily for the occupants of the building. located within a building so that no point is greater than 30' from the end of a 100' hose that is stored in a wall case. The outlet is 1.5" size and is connected to the building's water source. The standpipe system must be provided with a minimum 35gpm at 25psi for a period of 30 minutes, and the building water supply must be 70gpm at 25psi for 30 minutes. They must also be equipped with a siamese connection so that the fire department can provide additional water if necesary.
Combination standpipe (Class III): required in buildings higher than 150 feet in every stairway. it has to be equipped with both 2.5" and 1.5" outlets with hose rack systems also.
ball drip
an automatic drain valve located at the bottom of a dry standpipe.
Wet Sprinkler system
quick response, low initial cost. but possibility of unnecessary wetting of hte building or freezing. flow detectors are placed in each zone of sprinkler system. it detects the flow of water and sends a signal to the annunicator panel, thus notifying the fire department of the location of the fire.
Dry Sprinkler system
requires a dry pipe valve. prevents freezing but there may be a time delay once the fusible link is melted and the time it takes the water to push all of the compressed air out of the system.
Preaction sprinkler system
similar to dry sprinkler system that requires a separate fire sensing device be triggered. This allows the sprinkler system to be filled with water before any sprinkler heads are activated. used whered damage from water may result because the fire could potentially be put out before any sprinkler heads are activated.
prevents accidental discharge of water, but not as fail safe as the wet or dry systems.
Deluge system
when a fire detection device within the area is triggered, all of the sprinkler heads are activated and wet the entire space. good for high fire hazard areas. it is a dry pipe system. all sprinkler systems require a siamese connection so that the fire department can augment the sprinkler system if necessary.
hazard levels: light, Ordinary, Extra
determines how much area can be covered by a single sprinkler head. determined by the quantity of combustible areas. Light - churches, hospitals; Ordinary - libraries, laundries (ranges from 1-3), Extra - explosive handling areas
Human metabolism
a person at rest gives off 400 Btu/hr (117watts)
800 Btu/hr for work
2000 Btu/h for exercise
Total Heat loss
q = UA(change in temp (t))
calculates the heat loss through a building assembly using the coefficient of heat transmission.
q = UA(change in temp (t))
q = total heat loss (Btu/h-sf)
U = coefficient of heat transmission (1/R)
A = area (sf)
Heat gain through the building envelope
Determined from U (coefficient of heat transmission); area (sf), and DETD (Design Equivalent Temperature Difference) in lieu of the Change in Temp used for the Heat loss calculation.
Heat gain through glazing
calculated by multiplying the area of the glazing by the DLCF (Design Load Cooling Factor)
Effective temperature (ET)
A measure of human comfort. attempts to combine the effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement.
Burn gas or oil to heat air. upflow, downflow, and horizontal furnaces describe the path of return air through the furnace. used depending on the conditions and space for installation. (ie basement, attic, or low head room...)
Burns gas, electricity or oil to heat water or steam, sometimes using steam as the fuel.
Absorption Refrigeration
Produces chilled water through the process of heat loss through evaporation. accomplished through a salt solution that draws off water vapor from the evaporator.
Less efficient than compressive refrigeration. Used when waste heat is available.
Compressive Refrigeration
Transfer of heat through evaporation and liquifaction of a refrigerant. Three main components:
Compressor - compresses gaseos refrigerant into a liquid.
Refrigerant passes through the condensor, releasing latent heat.
The refrigerant flows through an expansion valve, causing it to cool rapidly. teh evaporator allows the gas to vaporize and absorb heat from the surroundings. then it repeats.
Evaporative Cooling
water is dropped over fins through which outdoor air or water is circulated. Water picks up latent heat as it becomes a vapor. Only works in hot-arid climates with low humidity that allows the air to evaporate. Simple system, easy to operate, lower cost than compressive refrigeration.
HVAC system - Direct Expansion (DX)
Simplest type of system. Obtains air directly from the outside and runs it over an evaporator. Self-contained unit. Can be through-wall, rooftop mounted, or packaged with the addition of a heating coil.
HVAC system - Constant Volume Single Duct System [all-air]
Most basic all-air system. basically a residential system. Appropriate for smaller buildings.Cannot heat and cool at the same time, all the spaces receive the same air, single thermostat. The only control is perhaps a damper at the diffuser. Simple to operate.
HVAC system - Variable Air Volume system (VAV)
Single duct that provides constant air to all zones. dampers are equipped with thermostats to control the volume of air ( therefore the amount of heated or cooled air)at each zone. cannot simultaneously heat and cooling, but VERY efficient for large, internal-load buildings.
All-Air HVAC system
cool and heat spaces through air alone. Heat is transported to the spaces via supply and return ducts.
Dual Duct (High-Velocity) system
Two supply ducts are provided (one hot, one cold) and feed into a mixing box in each zone controlled by a thermostat. air is moved at a high velocity to reduce the size of the dual ducts. Great flexibility. Higher cost because both heating and cooling have to be provided year round and twice the ductwork is required, and motors and fans have to be more powerful to push high velocity air. . similar to a three-pipe hydronic system, the return air has to be re-tempered. sound may be a problem from the high velocity.
HVAC System - Reheat (constant volume)
cools the air and controls humidity in a single plant and then ducts only cooled air to all zones. each zone or space has reheat (zone reheat or terminal reheat). Allows for individual control and flexibility. Smaller duct sizes and fan power because air is cool. uses more energy because air must be cooled most of the time, then reheated.
HVAC System - MultiZone system
all air is supplied to a central mixing box where both heating and cooling coils create hot and cold air. from there, the air is combined into different air streams, one for each zone. this system allows simultaneous heating and cooling of different zones, but due to the excessive ductwork, space is a concern and fewer zones or medium sized buildings are okay.
HVAC System - All-water system
uses a fan-coil unit in each room where cold or hot water is piped to the unit. ventilation is provided by outside air directly into the fan coil unit where it is mounted, by infiltration, or by interior air. advantage: efficient to supply both hot and cold water to each space and allows easy, individual control, but humidity control is not possible. 1, 2, 3, or 4-pipe system can be used.
HVAC System - Air-water system
Uses a central air system for air supply and humidity control. air is ducted to the individual space and then passes through a fan coil unit. This is common in hospitals where 100% outside air is supplied and 100% of the air is exhausted. Tempered air supplied at high velocity is called Induction system where it mixes with room air before being exhausted. Another air-water system uses the fan coil unit for primary air and then ducts in supplementary air.
Selection of HVAC Systems
1. Anticipated Use and occupancy. Does it need to be flexible? or will simultaneous variations in heating and cooling be required?
2. Size of the building - under 25 tons, DX or heat pumps are feasible.
3. Type of control required. multi-unit buildings (apartments, hotels, offices) require individual control. Theatres do not.
4. Fuels available - based on adjacency and economy
5. Climatic zone - determines humidity requirements, and whether or not quick response is needed.
6. Integration of the system with other systems - structural, fire protection, ceiling heights, space accomodations for mechanical rooms.
7. flexibility - adaptability of the system for possible future expansion or changes within the building use.
8. Economics - Initial cost, maintenance, operational cost (life cycle cost analysis)
System Sizing
1. System capacity - determined from heat gains and heat losses.
2. Mechanical Room space - all air or air-water would required 3-9% of gross building area. all-water is 1-3%. boilers and chillers require a room longer than twice the length so that internal tubing can be removed and replaced. ceiling heights should be 12-18 feet tall.
3. ductwork distribution and sizing - round ducts are more efficient, rectangular ducts make better use of plenum space. straight runs are better.
Determine static head to overcome, and resulting pressure determines duct and fan size.
Low pressure duct space: allow 3-6 sf / 1000sf of of floor space.
economizer cycle
the use of outdoor air when it is cool enough to mix with indoor return air. provides filtered fresh air to improve IAQ. great for facilities that require cooling even in winter months.
utilizing seasonal temperature adjustments to operate the hvac system without having to run the refrigeration cycle.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Dual Condenser Chillers
The use of two condensers instead of one for refrigeration equipment.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Gas-fired absorption based chillers
conventional chillers use compressive refrigeration with HCFCs. these types of chillers may be more efficient for large buildings where the cost of electricity is high, or where there is a low-cost heat source such as steam nearby.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Solar powered absorption chillers
can be more efficient and sustainable if powered from solar collectors. can reach temperatures of 175-190 degrees. not as efficient as electricity, but saves the cost of electricity to run a compressive-type chiller.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Direct Contact water heaters
heats water by passing heated gasses directly through it. ideal for large scale kitchens or facilities where hot water is in constant demand. up to 99% efficient. produce low emissions, but are high initial cost.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Recuperative Gas Boilers
recovers sensible and latent heat from flue gases. re-uses heat to pre-heat water for the boiler. lowe emissions and easier to install because flue can be plastic pipe since temperatures are lower. up to 95% efficient.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Displacement Ventilation
an air distribution system in which air is distributed through a raised floor and pushes return air up and out of the space. provides more uniform temperature and possible individual control. Does not have to be as cool because it is close to users. can be adjusted in the future if building function changes. only available in new construction to accomodate required floor to floor height.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Water loop Heat Pumps
All of the heat pumps tie into a single water loop (heat sink) within the building. This is ideal for spaces where some zones are cooling dumping heat into the line and others are heating and extracting heat from the line (simultaneous heating/cooling), then no additional energy has to be added. only when most of the units are either in heating or cooling mode. ideal for temperate climates. reduces piping costs over 2-4 pipe system.
Energy Conservation - Mechanical Components:
Thermal Energy Storage
using thermal masses to store energy. useful because cooling can be generated at off-peak hours and stored until later use during peak hours. can also be helpful in areas where there are large diurnal temperature swings. Ice stores the most coolness over water and rock.
Energy Recovery Ventilators
(air-to-air heat exchangers)
capture the waste energy from the exhaust air and use it to temper the incoming air. Reversible for the season. improve efficiency by up to 70%. efficient for cold, hot, or humid climates, not for temperate climates.
flat plate heat recovery units - can only exchange sensible heat and do not control humidity.
Energy transfer wheels (enthalpy wheels) - address humidity very well. Conserve energy up to 80%.
Heat pipes - transfers sensible heat energy (via a pipe and refrigerant medium) from hot exhaust air to cool outdoor air. Requires the air streams to be adjacent.
Water-to-water heat exchangers
incoming and exhaust air streams do not have to be adjacent. uses coils to transfer sensible heat. used in large buildings. efficiency 50-70%
Ground couple heat exchanger
heat or cool air by circulating it through pipes in the ground. long runs of pipes are required for efficient operation.
Building Automation System (BAS)
a coputer-based integrated system that controls usually HVAC, energy management, lighting, security, life safety. reduces energy costs. Energy Management System (EMS) is part of the BAS and monitors environmental conditions, then optimizes the system
Building Commissioning
process of inspecting, testing, starting up, and adjusting all of the building systems to ensure that they are operating correctly. then verifying and documenting that they meet the design criteria.
Systems include: all MEP systems, sprinkler, security, life safety, data/communications, vertical transportation.
Who does it? Could be the General Contractor, Architect, commissioning agent.
Daylight Factor (DF)
Percentage of the indoor illuminance at a point on a horizontal surface compared to the unobstructed exterior illuminance. Does not include direct sunlight. There are recommended DFs for various tasks: 1.5% - 4%
Effective aperture (EA)
combines light transmittance with window to wall ratio. an AE of 2.0 - 3.0 provides good daylighting. Visible light transmittance (VLT) is the percentage of light that passes through glazing. WWR is the net glazing area in a room divided by the gross exterior wall area.
Effective Daylighting Depth
Two most important factors in designing windows for daylighting is the EA and the head height.
Without shelf or shade: effective daylight sone = 1.5h
h = window head height from floor.
with shade and shelf: effective daylight zone = 2.5h
Soalr Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)
ratio of solar heat gain through glazing to the total solar radiation incident upon the outside of the glass. a value between 0.0 and 0.87. the lower the SHGC, the less solar gain.
spectrally selective glazing
high VLT, low SHGC
minimum room surface reflectances
ceilings: 80%
walls: 50-70%
floors: 20-40%
Sun charts
map the altitude and azimuth of the sun, year round, for a specific latitude. These charts can be used to determine the best design for overhangs, sun shading, and to plotout the shading effects of surrounding structures. this is called a shadow mask.
active solar energy systems
use mechanical equipment to collect, store, and distribute solar energy. Requires three components: collector, storage device, distribution system
Rain water collection
1 inch of rain per sf of roof are is = 0.6 gal.
a system would include water collection, storage cistern, distribution system.
calculate the water available:
horizontal area of catchment x average annual rainfall x 0.75 to account for evaporation
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
method of evaluating the environmental impact of using a particular material in a building over its entire life.
1. define the goal and scope of the study
2. inventory analysis - determining and quantifying all of the inputs and outputs of the product under study.
3. impact assessment - attempts to characterize the impacts of the processes found in the inventory
4. improvement analysis, then report the results - suggest how to reduce the environmental impact.
four stages of a products life cycle
1. raw material acquisition - collection of raw materials, tranportation to processing, energy in processing
2. manufacturing - convert processed raw materials into final product, packaging, transportation of final product to jobsite.
3. use and maintenance - installation of the product, longterm use of the product, maintenance and repair of the product.
4. Disposal - demolition of the product, conversion to another product, waste disposal, recycled product if applicable.
mold spores
require 40-100 degree temps, moisture, and food source
causes of poor IAQ
indoor chemical contaminants; outdoor chemical contaminants; bilogical contaminants; poor ventilation
sick building syndrome
describes a variety of health-related concerns that cannot be directly attributed to any one thing. Generally symptons disappear once the person leaves the building.
Building related illness
symptons can be directly related to a buildin contaminant. symptons persist even after leaving the building
multiple chemical sensitivity
acute, long -term sensitivity to a specific chemical due to exposer.
strategies for maintaining good IAQ
reduce or prevent pollutants at the source;
provide good maintenance of the facility;
control ventilation;
control occupant activity
minimum outdoor ventilation
20cfm/per for offices
natural occurring fibrous mineral found in rock formations. known to cause cancer. exosure generally comes from friable product. Asbestos was banned in 1989.
used as insulation sometimes contained asbestos.
lead-based paint was banned in 1978.
colorless, odorless, tasteless radioactive gas naturally occuring on earth. gas becomes trapped generally in crawl spaces and basements. can cause cancer. remediation consists of ventilating the space with diffferent methods of depressurization.
Banned in 1977. cause cancer
Green Seal
independent testing organization that develops standards for products that strive to be environementally durable and friendly. Green seal considers life cycle approach to analyzing products.
Tests indoor products for emissions.
ISO (international standards organization)
a non-governmental organization made up of over 120 standards bodies from 120 nations
rain water
slightly acidic, pH below 7. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds mix with rain to create sulfuric acid or nitric acid (aka acid rain)
Hard water
caused by calcium and magnesium deposits dissolved from underground rock.
Hard water is treated through an ion exchange process in a water softener system. The system contains zeolite and the water exchanges calcium for sodium. occasionally, the zeolite has to be recharged with a salt brine wash
Municipal water supply
General water main pressure is 50psi, but can range from 40-80psi. If the pressure is too high, a pressure-reducing valve must be used between the main and the building meter.
architect's first task is to determine the size, pressure, location of the main, and cost to tap it.
rain water
slightly acidic, pH below 7. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds mix with rain to create sulfuric acid or nitric acid (aka acid rain)
Upfeed water supply system
This system uses pressure in the main to supply fixtures directly. Pressure must be great enough to overcome friction loss, static head, and any valves, and still operate fixtures.
Practical use is 40-60 feet high.
Hard water
caused by calcium and magnesium deposits dissolved from underground rock.
Hard water is treated through an ion exchange process in a water softener system. The system contains zeolite and the water exchanges calcium for sodium. occasionally, the zeolite has to be recharged with a salt brine wash
Municipal water supply
General water main pressure is 50psi, but can range from 40-80psi. If the pressure is too high, a pressure-reducing valve must be used between the main and the building meter.
architect's first task is to determine the size, pressure, location of the main, and cost to tap it.
tankless water supply system
uses multiple pumps in medium sized buildings to provide adequate pressure. when low pressure is needed, only one pump runs.
Copper piping
benefits include: low outside diameter, resistance to corrosion, re-usable, strength, low friction loss.
K, L, M grades
K is the thickest, used underground
L - most common
M - thinnest, used for low pressure lines
Plastic piping
Only PVDC is suitable for hot water.
Globe Valve
allows one to adjust the water flow rate. Creates high friction loss because the water hsa to make two 90 degree turns.
Gate Valve
Great for completely on or off. low friction loss. useful where areas may need to be temporarily shut off.
Check Valve
a backflow preventer. it allows water to only flow in one direction to prevent possible contamination of the water supply.
Water hammer
The pounding noise in pipes when long distances of pipe carry water that is suddenly shut off.
air chambers and shock absorbers are used to eliminate this.
Fixture Unit
a unit flow rate = 1cf/min
used to determine "Probable Demand"
Pressure reducer
aka pressure regulators - required on fixtures if the pressure is too high, over 60 psi.
pressure relief valve
safety devices used to relieve pressure in order to prevent an explosion
Plumbing systems design
Goal - provide adequate pressure at the most remote fixture:
water main pressure - friction loss - static head - meter friction loss = greater than or equal to adequate pressure at the most remote fixture
static head: 1 psi = 2.3' or 1 ft = 0.434psi
water main pressure: consult the water company
Pressure loss in pipes and fittings: depends on diameter of pipe and flow (gal/min)
probable demand flow
determining the entire load of the system. defined by fixture units.
Fixture units
a unit flow rate approx. = 1cf/min
Acceptable flow rates for water
Water velocity or flow rate above 10ft/sec becomes noisy and pressure drop increases.
hot water supply
water heater is sized based on:
1. Total daily and peak hourly hot water demands.
2. covery rate of the system (# of gal/hour of cold water that the tank can heat up
Typical Hot water temperatures
110dr bath, 105d for handwashing, 140d for residential dishwashing and laundry
methods of heating hot water systems
direct - water is heated from direct contact with a heated coil or surface.
Indirect heating - uses an intermediary medium to heat the water. usually air, steam, or water.
Types of hot water systems
Tank - storage tank, typical residential hot water heater
tankless (instantaneous heat)
circulating - water is heated in one place and stored in another ( solar heating)
Types of solar water heating systems
Batch system - heats a tank of water in a black box; direct heating system
Thermosiphon system - relies on natural convection to heat water in a passive, open-loop system.
closed loop active system - pipes antifreeze liquid through the solar collectors and against a heat exchanger using a pump.
Drain down systems - direct, open-loop system that literally drains the loop when outside temps get close to freezing.
Drain back system - closed loop, active system that uses water and a heat exchanger. when temperatures get to low, water is "drained back" to the solar storage tank.
Phase change system - hot water system that takes advantage of the storage capacity of a phase -change material (it stores latent and sensible heat.
Sanitary drainage vents
serve two purposes:
1. relieve pressure to prevent sewer gases from bubbling up through the traps.
2. prevent a siphon from being created whenever a fixture drains away and keeps it from drawing the water out of the traps.
Air gaps
safety features in a sanitary system designed to prevent nonpotable water from ever entering the water supply via a siphoning effect.
vacuum breaker
where water supply is below the fixture, a vacuum breaker prevents siphoning similar to a backflow preventer
soil stack
carries human waste from toilets.
waste stack
carries all other waste except human waste from toilets
stack vent
vent that protrudes from the top of the soil stack
vent stack
a stack that collects and vents through the roof all of the vents.
house drain vs house sewer
House drain collects all of the soil and waste lines and runs horizontally out of the house or building to 3ft beyond. the house sewer is the same line past the 3 ft to the main sewer tie-in.
sewer lines
slope at 1/4" / foot
Sump pit
a device used to pump sewage up to gravity flow height when plumbing fixtures are installed below the house drain and house sewer.
Septic tank and leaching field
septic tank is sized based on the amount of daily flow. it hold solids and allows effluent to drain to the leaching field.
Leaching field
sized according to the estimated daily flow of sewage in gallons/day and the percolation test.
There must be a minimum of 100 ft between a leaching field and a well. 50 ft between the septic tank and a well.
provided in main sewage lines for maintenance. they are installed at avery turn and every 150 feet.
a pit located below a leader consisting of gravel to a depth that allows excess surface and rain water to percolate into the surrounding soil.
Fire protection
1. protect life
2. protect property
3. allow for restoration after the fire
Accomplished by:
preventing fire
early detection
quick exiting of occupants
containing the fire
suppressing the fire
smoke control
smoke kills more people than fire.
smoke control is handled through containment, exhaust, and sometimes dilution.
passive smoke control system
a system of smoke barriers designed to limit the migration of smoke through a building.
barriers may be smoke seals on doors, curtain boards (soffits) that catch smoke at the ceiling
active smoke control system
uses fans and the HVAC system to create negative pressure in zones where the fire is. this way smoke can be directed or exhausted.
doors with auto hold opens close, Return air and supply air on fir zone close, exhaust duct opens thus creating negative pressure. Adjacent other zones close return air and exhaust ducts, and pump in supply air which creates positive pressure.
stairways are always pressurized.
Installation of fire sprinkler systems
NFPA 13 - most codes refer to this standard. classifies building types into three groups: light, ordinary, extra hazard. type determines sprinkler head spacing.
used to improve the power factor in an AC circuit.
sizes of wires and cables (conductors)
smallest size is 16ga but 14ga is the smallest allowed in construction. 4/0 is the largest (about 1/2 diameter). 8ga or smaller is called "wire", 6ga or bigger is called "cable".

The current carrying capacity of a conductor is its size, insulation around it, and surrounding temperature.
copper bars used for high currents. when multiple busbars are grouped together in a metal housing, it is called a busway or busduct.
sleeve for wires and cables. Helps prevent fires from overheating, creates a ground, and helps support and protect the wiring.
series circuits
all resistances are sequential. Current is constant across all of the loads, but voltage drops consecutively. Also, if a lightbulb burns out, the entire circuit is open.
R_total = R1 + R2 + R3...
Parallel circuits
Voltage remains constant across all loads simultaneously, but the current is able to vary across each load. 1/R-total = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3...
the current-carrying capacity of a conductor. It is determined by the wire guage, the insulation around it, and the ambient temperature.
Aluminum conductors
cheaper than copper at large sizes. has a tendency to oxidize and overheat. therefore, aluminum is only permited for primary circuits.
power supply
buildings are usually supplied with power according to their size and load demand. Residential is 120/240v single phase, three wire.
medium commercial buildings have 120/208v three-phase, 4-wire. This allows for a variety of loads.
Large commercial buildings use 277/480v three-phase, 4-wire. This system is just like the 120/208 but it uses smaller feeders, smaller conduit, and smaller switchgear. This system generally incorporates smaller step-down transformers wher 120v service is needed.
Metering and load control
The electric provider uses meters to charge for electricity. installation is the owners responsibility.
Load control is the practice of designing a building to avoid peak demand times. This can be accomplished through load shedding - auto turn off of non-essential systems, peak load control-running systems during no-peak hours.

electric providers charge more for peak demand time because they have to not only provide service at any time, they have to provide enough power to meet the highest demand. This mean they have to build a power plant big enough to providethe maximum peak load.
High Intensity Discharge lights (HID)
Includes mercury vapor, metal halide, high pressure sodium, low-pressure sodium.
Mercury vapor
produces a blue light, 30-50lm/W = moderate efficacy
Metal halide
good CRI, better efficacy = 50-100lm/W
High Pressure sodium
Most efficient with an efficacy of 80-140lm/W. acceptable CRI for a variety of applications. made with a special ceramic lense to prevent deterioration from sodium.
low-pressure sodium
Highest efficacy = 150lm/W, but light is a monochromatic yellow - only acceptable for parking or areas where CRI doesn't matter.
Lighting systems
Direct, semi-direct, direct-indirect, semi-indirect, indirect.
Lighting system- ambient task lighting
The concept of not providing high light levels for various tasks across an entire room, but rather, providing the appropriate amount of light just at the task and providing moderate light at lower levels for ambient lighting (usually 1/3 the task light level.)
This is energy efficient, gives the user more control, and provides more pleasant work environment.
a free standing luminaire that directs most of its light toward the ceiling.
Color rendering index
This measures how closely the color is under a type of light compared to daylight. A CRI of 100 is perfect, therefore, CRI = 85 is good accuracy in color.
isolux chart
shows an outline of equal illumination for a particular luminaire. i know them as similar to photometric charts.
Emergency lighting
the IBC, NEC, and the life safety code all require emergency lighting for the safety of the occupants during evacuation in the event of a power failure . minimum light level shall be 1fc at the floor level.
a human body's heat production.
1 met = the amount of heat generated per unit area of a human body at rest.
A person generates 360 Btu/h or 106 W at seated rest.
insulating value of clothing.
1 clo = a mans business suit.
Operative Temperature
average of air temperature and MRT. Better judge of comfort.
Measured by a globe thermometer.
Mean Radiant Temperature measures the average of surface temperatures.
Globe Thermometer
measures Operative Temperature.
Radiant asymmetry
the variation of temerature between two different surfaces. ie - temp. difference between ceiling and floor. People don't like it.