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191 Cards in this Set

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Gearless Traction Electric Elevator
Faster speeds, Up to 1800 fpm
Capacity 2000 - 5000 lbs
Name this Concrete Finish
Sandpaper-like texture appropriate for exterior surfaces or where smooth surfaces are not required. This is the texture of concrete after floating, if no further work is done.
Float Finish
Name this Concrete Finish
Using a steel trowel several hours after floating, further consolidating the concrete.
Light Steel Troweled Finish
Name this Concrete Finish
Greatly densifies the top 1/8" of concrete, making a very smooth surface.
Hard Steel Troweled Finish
Name this Concrete Finish
Dislodges fine aggregate and produces a rough-textured surface useful for slip-resistance on outdoor floors
Broom Finish
Name this Concrete Finish
A smooth and level concrete slab. Commonly used in industrial warehouses where automated or special forklift vehicles drive.
Superflat Floor Finish
Name that Terrazzo
Made with small chips 3/8" in size
Standard
Name that Terrazzo
Larger than 3/8" chips, a thicker topping is required to carry the larger sized chips
Venetian
Name that Terrazzo
1/2" or larger, random, fractured chips, set in an underbed and then filled with standard Terrazzo
Palladiana
Name that Terrazzo
A textured surface created by washing the fill prior to setting
Rustic
What is sometimes added to plaster to increase Fire Resistance?
Vermiculite
Characteristics of type "M" Mortar
Compressive Strength = 2500psi

Recommended for reinforced masonry below grade or in contact with the earth, foundation walls subject to frost action or high lateral or compressive loads
Characteristics of type "S" Mortar
Compressive Strength = 1800psi

Reccomended for masonry where bond and lateral strength are more important than compressive strength
Characteristics of type "N" Mortar
Compressive Strength = 750psi

Medium strength mortar recommended for general use in exposed masonry above grade where high compressive and lateral strength are not required
Characteristics of type "O" Mortar
Compressive Strength = 350psi

Low strength, suitable for use in interior nonloadbearing walls and partitions.
Characteristics of type "K" Mortar
Very low strength mortar, suitable only for use in interior nonloadbearing walls where permitted by the building code.
Igneous Rock
Formed from the solidification of molten rock.

Types:
Granite
Sedimentary Rock
Consolidated products of rock disintegration, sea shells, and various clays and silts.

Types:
Sandstone, Limestone
Metamorphic Rock
Formed of either Igneous or Sedimentary rocks that have been altered by pressure or intrusion of molten rock or other liquids over a long period of time.

Types:
Marble, Slate
In Masonry cavity walls, metal ties or anchors are typically required by code every...
3 sq. feet
What is added to Aluminum to improve Strength and hardness?
Manganese, Zinc and Copper
What is the preferred min. of Asphalt roll roofing
1:12
Which soil test is a measure of the density of granular soil and the consistency of some clay...
Standard Penetration test
A 2" Diameter sampler is driven into the bottom of the borehole, the number of blows it takes to drive 12" is recorded
Soil test that measures the relationship between the density and the optimum moisture content...
Proctor test
What is Joseph Aspdin Famous for...
Developing Portland Cement.
The first Hydraulic (able to set uderwater) Binding material
What was Robert Maillart Famous for...
The Swiss engineer used concrete extensively in his bridges and industrial buildings.
Best Known for Cement Hall, which was a thinshell parabolic vault
What was Auguste Perret famous for...
Using concrete for structural frames in simple rectangular form, the area between the concrete frames was generally filled in with other materials
What is Pierre Luigi Nervi famous for...
Using reinforced concrete in his daring and innovative structures.
Stadiums at Florence, bridges and airplane hangars used exposed concrete.
Most famous for Exhibition Hall and the Sports Palace in Rome
What is Les Corbusier Famous for
Used Concrete in his later buildings

Apartment block at Marseilles
Ronchamp
The Palace of justice, Chandigarh
Concrete joints are often emphasized with these continuous pieces of neoprene, wood or other material that when removed show a deep reveal in concrete.
Rustication Strips
Slip forms are good for...
Tunnels and High rise building cores
Flying Forms are good for...
buildings with highly repetetive units such as hotels and apartments
Formwork should be reused as much as possible. How can you accomplish this?
Uniform Bay Sizes, beam depths, column widths, opening sizes.
Slab thicknesess should be kept consistent.
It is often better to use more concrete that to do more formwork.
Concrete tolerances...
Columns, Piers, and walls = 1/4" for every 10'

Total height of structure = 1" for interior columns and 1/2" for corner columns up to 100'

Total length of building = 1"
Vapor Barrier vs. Vapor Retarder
Vapor Barrier desinged to prevent water vapor from passing through.

Vapor Retarded only slows the rate of vapor transmission
Perm
The passage of one grain of water vapor per hour through one square foot of material at a pressure differential of one inch of mercury between sides.
Common grades of rebar
grade 40 and 60 (ksi yeild strength)
Grade 60 is most comon in construction

Less common : 50 and 75
What is rebar coated with in corrosive environments?
Epoxy or are Galvanized
What kind of paint is solvent free and presents no flammability hazard?
Acrylic Latex
Characteristics of welded wire fabric...
Usually square pattern with spacing 4" or 6"
Expressed as
Ex. = 6 x 6-W1.4 x 1.4

The 6x6 means it is 6" square,

The W designates smooth and D designates Deformed

1.4 x 1.4 means the size of the wire is 1.4 hundredths of a square in
Type I Cement
Standard or Normal cement.
Used for most general construction where other types are not needed.
Type II Cement
Modified Cement.
Used where a moderate amount of sulfate resistance is needed and where the heat of hydration needs to be controlled, such as Dams or other
Type III Cement
High Early Strength Cement
Used where a quick set is needed. Also has a high heat of hydration so it is good for cold weather.
Type IV Cement
Low-Heat Cement
Used in massive structures to minimize cracking.
Slow setting
Type V Cement
Sulfate-resisting Cement
Used for structures exposed to water or soil with a high alkaline content
Rules for sizing Aggregate
-No more than 3/4 the distance between rebar
- No more than 1/5 the size of the smallest form dimension
- No more than 1/3 the depth of slab
Explain this ratio as it applies to concrete.
1:2:4
1:2:4

1 Part Cement
2 Parts Sand
4 Parts Gravel

Another method is to specify the weight of material including water per 94lb bag of cement.
For large batches, the weight of material per cubic yard is another method.
Air Entraining Agents
Form tiny dispersed bubbles.
Increases Workability and Durability and improves it resistance to Freeze Thaw cycles.
Reduces segregation
Fly Ash
Waste material from coal fired power plants.
Used in concrete to increase strength,
decrease permeability,
reduce temperature rise,
increase sulfate resistance
Improve workability and decrease amount of cement needed
How much strength does concrete get by the 7 day mark?
Approx. 70%
Range of desired concrete slump
2" - 6"
In Tuck Pointing How deep is the grout removed beforehand?
2.5x the depth of the joint
What is the formula for calculating Board Feet
Using Nominal sizes ie; 2x4 not actual unless asked

Length"xWidth"xThickness"/144 = Board Feet
How to remember the Nominal sizes of Lumber
In any direction
1" = 3/4"
2" = 1-1/2"
4" = 3-1/2"
6" =5-1/2"
8" = 7-1/4"

Everything above 8" is the same as 8" (ex. 12" is 11-1/4")
With the exception of Heavy Timber which is 1/2" (ex. 6" = 5-1/2")
Fiber Saturation Point
When the cell walls are completely saturated but no water exists in the cell cavities.
Averages 30% moisture content
For wood to be considered dry it must have a max moisture content of
19% Dry
15% Kiln-Dry
Structural tables assume the max. moisture content will not exceed 19%
Building paper is used to...
Minimize air infiltration and improve water resistance.
Lumber for Architectural Woodwork is classed differently than lumber used for rough or finished Carpentry. What are the different grades?
In order of best to worst...
1. Premium
2. Custom
3. Economy
What are the 3 ways Veneer panels can be assembled in a room in order of most to least expensive?
1. Blueprint matching - Panels are manufactured to precisely fit the room
2. Sequence Matching - Uses panels of uniform width made for a specific job, veneers arranged in sequence and trimmed around openings.
3. Warehouse Matching - Premanufactured panels field cut to fit around openings
High Pressure Decorative Laminates (HPDL)
A thin Sheet of material made by impregnating several layers of Kraft paper with phenolic resinsand overlaying with a patterned or colored sheet and a layer of melamine.

-Colorthrough laminates
-Fire rated laminates
-Chemical resistive laminates
-Static-disipative lamintes
-metal-faced laminates
-Natural wood laminates
For most of the united states, the Optimum moisture content for interior applications is...
5% - 10%

Humid southeast = 8% - 13%
Dry Southwest = 4% - 9%
In terms of Flame Spread rating, wood is generally a class...
C
Different wood has different flame spread ratings, however very few have higher that 75
Treating wood will increase, but darkens wood and makes it harder to finish.
Opaque Finishes
Include Lacquer, Varnish, Polyurethane and Polyester
They should only be used on closed grain woods where solid stock is used, or MDF where sheet material is used
Transparent Finishes
Include Lacquer, Varnish, Vinyl, Penetrating oils, Polyurethane, and Polyester
Lacquer Finish Characteristics
Easy to apply
Repaired easily
relatively low in cost

Not as Chemical and wear resistant as other finishes
Catalyzed lacquers are harder to repair but more durable
Vinyl Finish Characteristics
More chemical resistant than lacquer or vinyl

Also very resistant to scratching, abrasion and other chemical damage
Penetrating oil finish characteristics
Easily applied and give a rich look to the wood
requires re-oiling and tend to darken with age
An oil finished look can be achieved with catalyzed vinyl
What are the most durable, and most expensive wood finishes?
Polyurethane and Polyester

Polyurethane available in dull to full gloss
Polyester only available in full gloss
Damproofing
Control of Moisture not under hydrostatic pressure. Water repellant coatings on concrete, masonry, and wood walls above grade but used mostly on slabs and and foundation walls below grade subject to continuous moisture exposure.
-Admixtures
-Bituminous Coatings
-Cementitious Coatings
-Membranes (usually used for waterproofing)
-Plastics (usually used above grade)
Heat transfer
Heat passes from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature by
Conduction - Heat transfered through material
Convection - Heat transferred through Fluid
Radiation - Heat transferred through electromagnetic waves.
The thermal resistance value of a closed cell foam insulation measured after 5 years
Long Term Thermal Resistance (LTTR)
Because of its superior resistance to water absorption what is the only insulation recommended for proptected membrane roofing or below grade insulation.
Extruded Expanded Polysyrene (XEPS)
Radiant barriers are placed...
To block heat - Between the insulation and the roof deck
To retain Heat - Radiant barrier below or face the heated side of insulation
Roof Panels span _______
Wall Panels span _______
Purlins
Girts
Iron chains were used where to prevent domes from spreading?
Dome of Florence Cathedral - Brunelleschi
Dome of St. Peters Cathedral - Michaelangelo
Cast Iron Pipes were used to supply water to...
The Gardens at Versailles
Who introduced the use of Coke for Smelting?
Abraham Darby - 1709
Where was the first major use of Cast Iron as Structural elements?
In a bridge over the river severn at Coalbrookdale, England by Abraham Darby III - 1779
Who first used cast iron for both Columns and I-Beams for the entire framework of a building?
Mathew Boulton and James Watt in a cotton mill at Salford Manchester.
Notable Buildings to use Cast Iron...
Royal Pavilion at Brighton - John Nash
Greenhouse of the Botanical Gardens in Paris - Rouhault
Library of Saint Genevieve - Henri Labrouste
Crystal Palace in London - Joseph Paxton
Eiffel Tower - Gustave Eiffel
Halle Des Machines
A major technical Improvement in Iron Construction for making steel Inexpensively...
The Bessemer Process - 1856
Developed by Henry Bessemer
Which Building was significant for being the first to use cast Iron Columns instead of Masonry for the outside walls?
A 5 Story factory in New York by James Bogardus - 1848
What is considered to be the first skyscraper?
the 10 story Home Insurance building in Chicago. - William Le Baron Jenney 1885

The building used cast Iron columns for both interior and exterior and employed Bessemer steel girders. Was also fireproofed
The use of the Iron Skeleton came to be called...
Chicago Construction
In the US, the period between 1850 to 1880 was called the...
Cast Iron Age
Who was one of the first Architects to use steel and its structural Purpose part of the form of the building?
Mies van der Rhoe
Most Notably
Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago
860 Lake shore Drive Apartments in Chicago
Primary Ferrous Metals used in construction Include...
Iron, Steel, Stainless Steel, and other Steel Alloys
Stainless Steel
Containing a minimum 11% chromium. Nickel is often added for corrosion resistance and to improve cold workability.
Stainless Steel Finishes
#3 - Intermediate, Dull Finish, Coarser than #4

#4 - General Purpose polished finish, dull and prevents mirror reflections. Most Common

#6 - Dull Satin Finish

#7 - Highly reflective polished finish

#8 - Most reflective finish, used for mirrors and reflectors, seldom used for Arch. Applications
Primary Non-Ferrous Metals used in construction Include...
Aluminum, Copper, Copper Alloys (Bronze, Brass)

Secondary or added to others - Zinc, Lead, Gold
Bronze
Alloy of Copper and Tin
Brass
Alloy of Copper and Zinc
Terneplate
Alloy of 75% lead and 25% tin
Open web steel joists and Spanning distances.
K - Standard - 8'-60'
LH - Long Span - 25'-96
KLH - Deep Long Span - 89'-144'
Spiral Stairs are fabricated in standards diameters of...
3'-6" up to 7'-0" in 6" Increments

Treads at 22.5, 27, and 30 degrees
30 degrees most common
What wood is used mostly for framing and rough carpentry by region?
Southern Pine - In Southeast
Douglas Fir - Western states

Other common - Hem-fir, eastern white pine, and hemlock
What are the 2 primary classifications of Soft Lumber?
Yard Lumber - Used for structural purposes and rough framing?
Factory and Shop Lumber - Used for Door frames, windows, and finish items
What categories is Factory and Shop lumber divided into?
Select
B and better (Best, free of knots)
C Select
D Select
_______________________
Common
no.1(best) through no.5
Grades determined by size and character of knots
In structural wood framing how are Beams and Stringers defined?
members 5" wide or wider, having a depth more than 2" greater than the width
In structural wood framing how are Posts and Timbers defined?
members 5"x5" and larger with a depth not more than 2" greater than the width
Engineered wood products have the following advantages...
- Better use of natural resources
- An improved product without typical wood defects
- Increased strength for a given size, compared with standard wood products
- Consistent size and strength
Characteristics of wood trusses.
Common spacing, 24" O.C.
Floor trusses can span up to about 40'
Roof trusses can span up to 70'
SIP's Panels are usually composed of
7/16" OSB facing with a molded EPS core.
Other facings may include.
Plywood
Aluminum
Cement Board
Gypsum wallboard
Advantages of SIPS
- Decreased Construction time
- Improved insulation value, No thermal bridging
- Reduced air infiltration
- stronger than coventional stud and sheathing
- Very flat fo subsequent finishes
- Dimensional Stability
IBC requires Heavy Timber construction to follow these rules...
Consists of exterior, noncombustible masonry or concrete. With interior columns, beams, girders and planking manufactured of large solid or glu-lam timbers.
-Columns at least 8"x8" nominal
-Beams and girders supporting floors at least 6"wide x 10"deep nominal
-Floor Decking at least 3" nominal thk. with no concealed space below
-Roof decking at least 2" nominal thk.
Sometimes settling can be almost eliminated by using...
CLSM (Controlled Low Strength Material)
Made from Portland cement and/or Fly ash, sand and water.
Sometimes called Flowable Fill
pyramid
a solid figure whose base is a polygon, and other faces are triangles that meet at a vertex
Insert AFPA Grade stamp here
A grade stamp shows: (1) the registered symbol of the certified agency; (2) the mill identification number; (3) the species or species group; (4) the seasoned condition; and, (5) the grade name or number. In the illustration, this grade stamp states that the lumber is certified by the Alberta Forest Products Association, from Mill 00 (which can be found in the AFPA membership directory – this one is fictitious); is from a coniferous tree (a.k.a softwood – Spruce-Pine-Fir); was graded according to National Lumber Grades Authority rules; is kiln-dried and heat treated (19 per cent or less moisture content) and; is of #1 grade.
Nominal vs. Actual
Nominal always written without inch marks.
Actual always written with inch marks
Glued laminated members can be made 20% stronger and 15% stiffer by...
Substituting a stronger material such as composite laminated veneer lumber in the top and bottom of beam where the stresses are higher.
Called Hybrid Glulam beams
Lumber like products with a plastic content of 50% or more are called
Recycled Plastic Lumber (RPL)
Actual dimensions for structural plywood are ____ less to allow a gap for thermal expansion and contraction.
1/8"
Explain the different Plywood Exposure ratings
Exterior - Suitable for use as siding or other applications permanantly exposed to weather.
Exposure 1 - Most Common. Fully waterproof glue, lower quality veneers than Exterior suitable for sheathing or subfloor which will be protected from weather, capable of enduring long periods of wetting during construction.
Exposure 2 - Suitable for panels fully protected from weather. Subject to only a minimum wetting during construction.
Nails, fasteners, hangars and hold downs used with treated lumber must be...
Galvanized or Stainless Steel,
Aluminum flashing and fasteners should not be used
Nails exposed to weather should be
Galvanized, Stainless steel or Aluminum
The 3 sizes of nails most often used in Light Frame construction are...
8d = 2-1/2"
10d = 3"
16d = 3-1/2"
Modular and Manufactured home are constructed in units not wider than...
14' - 16'
To allow for transportation
a safe pedestrian walk should not have a cross slope greater than ____
1/4" per foot (2%)
At what temperature do workers need to take steps to protect concrete, when cold weather is predicted?
40 Degrees Fahrenheit
The vertical joint between masonry wythes
Collar Joint
How far should flashing extend beyond the face of brick?
Flashing should extend at least 3/4" and turn down at a 45 degree angle
All of the following requirements must be met for a window to qualify as an emergency escape and rescue window...
- Min. width of opening: 20"
- Min. height of opening: 24"
- Min. net clear opening: 5sf ground floor, 5.7sf upper floors
- Max. sill height: 44"

Awning windows are not allowed
Describe
Moisture Barrier
Water-Resistive Barrier
Weather-Resistive Barrier
Air Barrier
These are all names given to the protective layer intended applied to the exterior of sheathing to repel water and restrict the leakage of air.
Usually the same 15lb felt used for roofing or an asphalt saturated paper with similar properties called Grade D Sheathing paper.
While it must resist liquid water, it must be able to pass vapor so it is not trapped in the wall.
Avoiding Ice Dams
Keeping entire roof cold enough so snow wont melt by continuously passing outside air under the roof through vents at the eaves and ridge for roofs without an attic, and air is passed between the insulation and the roof.
If there is an attic cold air is is brought in through attic vents and the insulation is installed over the ceiling below.
An
Ice Barriers
In cold climates without ventilated air space, and Ice barrier must be installed and extend 24" over the insulated air space.
Must wait this long before painting...
Concrete - 30 days
Stucco - 7 days
Plaster - 30 days
CMU - 30 days
The quality of woodwork is regulated by...
The American Woodwork Institute (AWI)
There are 3 grades:
Economy
Custom (Most cabinets)
Premium
How long can Mortar sit before it must be discarded?
90 Minutes - If too stiff, water can be added to retemper

2.5 hours - Mortar must be discarded
Appearance Uniformity of facing brick.
FBX - Least variation in size per unit, least disortion in shape, minimum chippage

FBS - General-Purpose face brick, Moderate variation in shape and size, moderate chippage

FBA - Great nonuniformity in size and shape
A good rue of thumb for designing corbelling
The projections of each course should not exceed half the course height. This results in a 60 degree corbel.
Rough building stone obtained from riverbeds and fields.
Fieldstone
Irregular quarried fragments that have at least one good face to expose.
Rubble
Stone that has been quarried and cut into rectangular form
Dimensional Stone. Large slabs are often referred to as cut stone.
The weakest of all building stone
Limestone
These permit the lifting and placing of blocks of building stone without interfering with the bed joints of mortar...
Lewises
Most common size for CMU masonry block
8x8x16 Nominal
7-5/8x7-5/8x15-5/8 Actual

Allows for 3/8" Mortar Joint
Composite Masonry wall
An outer wythe of stone or facing brick with a backup wythe of CMU
Weepholes should be installed no more than _____ horizontally in Brick
and _____ In CMU. And Weepholes should be a Min. of _____ in Diamater.
24" apart in Brick
32" apart in CMU

Weepholes 1/4" Dia. Minimum
Where internal flashing crosses the wythe it should turn up ______" at the back face of the cavity and penetrate the inner wythe by at least ______"
6"-9" turned up
2" penetration into wall
Types and Characteristics of Flashing
Flashing may be made of...
Sheet Metal
Modified Asphalt membranes
Plastics
Rubbers
Composite Sheets

Sheet metal is best and most expensive. Copper and Stainless steel are the best, galvanized steel eventually rusts and disintegrates. Aluminum and lead are unsuitable in Masonry walls because they react chemically to mortar.
Welds in structural connections that may be subjected to high stresses during seismic events are termed...
Demand Critical welds
Steel columns are generally fabricated in ______ story lengths
2
Building codes generally limit the use of exposed steel to buildings no more than _______ stories in height
5
Characteristics of heat treating steel.
Quenching - Becomes very hard but brittle
Tempering - Heating to a moderate degree and then cooling slowly making it both hard and strong
Annealing - Bringing to a very high temperature and then cooling very slowly, will become softer, easier to work, less brittle
J.L. Lambot
Used reinforced concrete to build boats
Precast concrete elements are typically _______psi, type______ Concete.
5000 PSI
Type III High early strength
In the Filigree precast concrete system
Precast elements are used as formwork for sitecast concrete.
Urethanes coatings are advantages because...
They are resistant to wear and abrasion.

Often used on gymnasium floors and other surfaces requiring a high degree of wear resistance.
Galvanic action, Anode vs Cathode
Anode - The metal donating electrons, accelerated rate of corrosion

Cathode - Reduced rate of corrosion

The galvanic series lists items in order from most anodic to most cathodic.
If coating roof, coat either the most cathodic or both.
in 1959, the english firm Pilkington Brothers ltd. started producing...
Float glass, which is now the worldwide standard, replacing drawn glass and plate glass.
Ordinary window Glass is...
Annealed
Cooled slowly under controlled conditions to avoid locked in thermal stress
Heat treated glass
reheating ordinary annealed glass to approx 1150 deg. and then cooling rapidly. This produces permanent compressive stresses in the edges and face tensile stress in the core.
Stronger in bending than annealed glass. By adjusting the quenching, it can be made into either tempered or heat-strengthened glass.

Good in high wind, impact, or intense heat or cold
Tempered glass
4 times as strong in bending as annealed glass. Breaks into tiny square edged shards.
Safety Glass
Used in walls for squash and handball courts, hockey rinks, basketball backboards.
Heat-Strengthened glass
Lower cost than tempered
For many applications it may be used instead of tempered glass where safety glass is not required.
Breakage behavior like annealed glass.
Laminated glass
A type of safety glass.

Skylights and overhead glazing
Bulletproof glass
Lower sound transmission
Better UV resistance
Fire resistant glass
tempered or laminated - up to 20 mins
Wired Glass - 45 mins
Optical Quality Ceramic - 20 mins. - 3 hrs.
The transparency of glass is called it's...
Visible Light Transmittance

Clear glass has 0.80 - 0.90
Glass surfaces are numbered...
Starting from the exterior and working inward.

Outside glass is #1
Glass that can change it's properties is called...
Chromogenic Glass
Used for windows succeptable to vandalism
Polycarbonate Glass
According to the IRC, habitable rooms must have a net exterior glazed area equal to ______% of their floor area.
8%
Low Range Sealant
Also called caulk
Very limited elongation
Capable of +/- 5% of the joint width

Filling minor cracks or nonmoving joints. Preperation for painting. Not for sealing exterior walls.
Medium Range Sealant
Elongations capable of +/- 5-10%
Butyl or Acrylic

Used for building exterior to seal joints that are mechanically fastened and nonworking.
High Range Sealant
Elongations capable of +/- 50-100%
Polysulfides, Polyurethane, Silicones (longest lasting - highest performing)

Can last up to 20 years
Sealants are classified by Type, Grade, and Class and Use
Name them
Types:
S = Single component, requires no jobsite mixing
M = Multi-Component, must be mixed on the jobsite. (Cure faster)

Grades:
P = Self leveling, Pourable (Horizontal joints)
NS = Nonsag (vertical joints)

Class: defines elongation capability class 25 can elongate 25%

Use:
T = Traffic
NT = Nontraffic
I = Immersible
M,G,A,O = Masonry, Glass, Aluminum, Other
Installing EIFS
1. Foam panel is daubed with mortar and attached to wall
2. Thin base coat with embedded fiberglass mesh is installed
3. A finish coat of any desired color is troweled on.
outside vs inside glazing
Outside = workers install glazing from outside on scaffolding, simple set of extrusion, less expensive for buildings 1-3 stories tall.

Inside = More convenient but requires more ellaborate extrusions
Double-Skin facade, Dual-Wall Facade, Double-Skin walls are...
All names for 2 distinct glass cladding systems seperated by an air spaceis wide enough for service personell to pass between them
Steiner Tunnel Test
Used for testing the surface burning characteristics of finish materials.

A sample of material 20" wide by 24' long forms the ceiling of a rectangular furnace. A flame is introduced at one end, the time it takes to burn to the other end is recorded along with the density of smoke. From this the Flame-Spread rating and the Smoke-developed rating are obtained.
Minimum Critical radiant flux exposure
Test to ensure that flooring material in critical parts of the egress cannot be easily ignited by the heat of fire and hot gases in adjacent spaces.
Class I - Most resistant
Class II - Moderate resistance
Fire resistance rating for
Shaft Enclosures
2 hours where connecting 4 or more stories.

1 hour where connecting fewer stories
Fire resistance rating for
Exit stairways and exit passageway enclosures
2 hours where connecting 4 or more stories.

1 hour where connecting fewer stories
Fire resistance rating for
Corridor and elevator lobby seperations
1 hour in unsprinkled buildings

0-1 hour in sprinkled buildings depending on the number of occupants served and the occupancy group
Fire resistance rating for
Separations between dwelling or sleeping units in multiunit buildings
1 hour in unsprinkled buildings

0-1 hours in sprinkled buildings, depending on the number of occupants served and the occupancy group
Fire resistance rating for
Mall Tenant space separations
1 hour
Fire resistance rating for
Fire area separations
1-4 hours depending on the occupancy group
Gypsum Board finish levels
Level 0 - boards only, used in temporary construction

Level 1 - Joints sealed with tape and joint compound, used above ceilings, out of view

Level 2 - All joint taped and joint compound goes over all joints and fasteners. For garages and boards used as backer for tile

Level 3 - Adds a second coat of compound over everything after 1st coat has dried. For surfaces to be textured or heavy wallcovering

Level 4 - 3rd coat over everything, for surfaces to be covered with flat paint light texture or thin wallcovering

Level 5 - adds a thin skim coat over everything
Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)
A number between 0 and 1
an NRC of 0.85 indicates that the material absorbs 85% of sound that reaches it and reflects only 15% back into the room.
Ceiling Attenuation Class (CAC)
The ability of a ceiling system to reduce sound transmission from one room to another through a shared plenum.
Measured in decibels with higher values indicating a higher reduction.
For closed offices a minimum CAC of 35 - 40 is recommended.
Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF)
measurement of a floors skid resistance.
A SCOF of 0.50 or more is desirable to minimize accidents caused by slipping
The ground surrounding a buildings foundation must be graded to slope a minimum of...
1/4" per foot (2%)
What is the Skewback length for a jack arch?
1/2" per foot of span for each 4" of depth
What was the significance of Burnham and roots Reliance Building?
One of the first buildings to use an all steel frame. It features curtain walls and large "Chicago-Style" windows, and it's facade expresses the pattern of the buildings structural frame.
Credit for the first curtain wall structure goes to...
Home Insurance Building
William LeBaron Jenney
Louis Sullivans Carson Pirie Scott Department store (also known as the Schlesenger & Meyer store featured...
Highly detailed cast-iron ornament with Organic motifs on the street level and Chicago style fenestration above.
Galvanic Series Mnemonic
Aluminum = A (although zinc appears first on some tables)
Zinc = Zebra
Iron/Steel = IS
Stainless Steel = So So
Tin = Tame
Lead = Lest
Brass = Bees (note relationship with "s")
Copper = Come
Bronze = Buzzing (note relationship with "z")
Gold = Gallantly
August Perret
Used a revolutionary new product, reinforced concrete.
Best known work, Notre Dame du Raincy in Paris used "Ferroconcrete"
The height of stair and depth of stair treads are allowed to differ in size up to ________
per IBC
0.375"
although the minimum clear width of an elevator is 36", what is the optimum width?
3'-6"
What level of Radon in pCi/L is acceptable before remedial action must be taken?
4 pCi/L
Under 4 no action is required, over 4, remedial actions may include
Sealing Cracks in foundation walls or floor slabs
Ventilation
Depressurizing basement or crawlspace
The construction of wood stairs is considered...
Finish Carpentry