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40 Cards in this Set

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the retroperitoneum is defined as?
the space between the posterior portion of the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall.
what are the three categories oof the retroperitoneum?
anterior pararenal, perirenal space and posterior pararenal space
what does the perirenal space include?
adrenals, kidney, ureter, great vessel
what does the anterior pararenal space include?
pancreas, duodenal sweep, ascending and transverse colon
what does the posterior pararenal space include?
blood and lymph nodes
the iliac fossa includes?
ureter, major branches of the great vessels and lymphatics
the retrofascial space has three compartments they are?
psoas, lumbar, iliacs
the right adrenal is more what to the kidney?
superior
the left adrenal is more what to the kidney?
medial
the neonate adrenal gland is larger or smaller porportionally to an adults kidney?
larger (1/3 the size of the kidney)
adults are 1/13 the size
normal lymph nodes measure less than?
1cm
what are the two major lymph node bearing areas?
iliac and hypogastric in the pelvis and the para-aortic in the upper peritoneum
where does the pelvic retroperitneum lie?
between the sacrum and the pubis and the peritoneal reflection and the pelvic diaphragm.
what is the prevesical and rectovesical space?
the space that spans from the pubis to the anterior margin of the bladder. the space between the bladder and rectum is the rectovesical space.
what is the pre sacral space?
it lies between the rectum and fascia covering the sacrum and posterior pelvic floor musculature.
what is the vascular supply located in the retroperitoneum?
aorta, ivc
what are the two parts of the adrenal glands?
cortex and medulla
what are the hormones secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland?
mineralocorticoids: regulate electrolyte metabolism
glucocorticoids: carb metabolism
sex hormones: androgens and estrogens
what is the cause of Addison's disease?
hypo function of the adrenal cortex *bronzing of skin*
what syndromes are produced from hyper function fo the adrenal cortex?
cushings, conns adrnogenital syndrome
what hormones are secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
what is a primary retroperitoneal tumor?
one that originates independently within the retroperitoneal space. Primarily malignancies are more common than benign, but both are rare.
what is the most common retroperitoneal tumor?
lymphoma
what is adrenogenital syndrome?
the result of excessive secretion of the sex hormones and adrenal androgens. caused by an adrenal tumor or by hyperplasia. adrenal virilism
what is conn's syndrome
aka aldosteronism. caused by excessive secretion of aldosteronism due to a cortical adenoma.
in conn's syndrome what is more common in males and females?
hyperplasia or adrenal carcinoma in males and adrenal adenoma in females.
what is cushing's syndrome?
caused by excessive secretion on cortisol resulting from hyperplasia. symptoms include "buffalo hump", moon face, truncal obesity.
what is water house-friderichsen syndrome?
there is a fulminant bacterial sepsis, shock and necropsy with adrenal hemorrhage
adrenal cysts
produce no clinical symptoms when small. affect women more than men. are uncommon and normally unilateral. have a typical cystic pattern.
what is the main reason for adrenal hemorrhage in adults?
usually caused by severe trauma or infection. hemorrhages are more common in neonates that have a traumatic delivery. has a normal hemorrhagic appearance.
what is an adrenal adenoma?
a benign functioning adenoma that is the most common primary adrenal tumor. occurs more frequently in older patient with diabetes and hypertension.
adrenal malignant tumors
rare. may be hyper functional or nonfunctional. hyper functional are more common in females. Larger neoplasms tend to be nonfunctional.
Metastasis to the adrenals
fourth most common meets after the lung, liver and the bones. Mets usually causes adrenal insufficiency. Nonspecific appearance.
what is a pheochromocytoma??
located in the adrenal medulla which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in excessive quantities. tend to be malignant. associated with hypertension.
what is an adrenal neuroblastoma
the most common malignancy of the adrenal glands in childhood. well encapsulated tumor that displaces the kidney inferiorly. heterogeneously echogenic with poorly defined margins.
what is the second most common PRT??
leiomyosarcoma. originates in smooth muscle. presents as a large complex mass w/areas of necrosis.
what are two kinds of leiomyosarcomas?
fibrosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas
Germ Cell Tumors
can be malignant or benign. fourth most frequent site is the retroperitoneal. *include teratomas*
what is a urinoma?
a walled off collection of extravasated urine that develops spontaneously afte trauma, surgery or urinary obstruction
what is retroperittoneal fibrosis?
aka ormonds disease. thick sheets of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal cavity. they may encase and obstruct the ureters & IVC causing hydronephrosis.