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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
how is the neonate kidney characterized?
a distinct demarcation of the cortex and medullary pyramids. contour is normally lobulated and the length can vary depending on age.
what are the normal size of the adrenal glands in relation to the kidneys?
1/3 the size of the pediatric kidney.
sonographically the adrenal gland can appear as?
an inverted V or Y shaped in the longitudinal plane
what is hydronephrosis?
described as dilation of the urinary collecting system and is a common finding in the younger patient.
what are the common causes of hydronephrosis?
obstruction, reflux, abnormal muscle development.
what is the most common type of obstruction of the upper urinary tract?
ureteropelvic junction obstruction. it produces proximal dilation of the collecting system. increased contralateral kidney abnormalities.
what does sonography show with a megaureter?
hydronephrosis and hydroureter with a narrow segment of the distal ureter behind the bladder. diminished ureteral jet may be noted.
what is the frequent cause of bilateral hydronephrosis?
obstruction at the level of the bladder or bladder outlet. causes range from neurogenic bladder, pelvic mass or a congenital anomaly.
what are the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction?
posterior urethral valves.
who and where are ectopic ureteroceles more common?
females and on the left. seen as a fluid mass within the bladder.
what is prune belly syndrome?
aka abdominal muscle deficiency syndrome. is a triad of hypoplasia or deficiency of the abdominal musculature, cryptorchidism and urinary tract anomalies.
what is the most common cause of renal cystic disease in neonates?
multi cystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK) cluster of grapes appearance
what is acute pyelonephritis?
infection of the renal pelvis, it usually begins in the bladder ascends to the ureter then to the renal pelvis.
what occurs when there is repeated episodes of acute pyelonephrosis?
chronic pyelonephrois. making the renal cortex more echogenic. renal pyramids become indistinguishable.
what is most likely to occur it the septic or dehydrated infant?
renal vein thrombosis
where does a neuroblastoma arise from?
the sympathetic chain ganglia and adrenal medulla.