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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
primary context
The matrix and the provenience of a site have not been disturbed since deposition (en situ)
primary context use-related
Resulting from the abandonment of materials during acquisition, manufacture, or use activities
primary context transposed
Resulting from depositional activities, such as midden formation (trash piles)
secondary context
The matrix, provenience, and association have been altered, in whole or in part, by transformational processes
secondary context use-related
Resulting from human disturbance by cultural transforms (e.g., farming)
secondary context natural
Resulting from natural disturbance by natural transforms
Lubbock expanded on Darwin’s natural selection to say that
“primitives” were living approximations of what Europeans used to be
Morgan was a unilineal theorist who said
those who progressed most were closest to God, and had progressed because they were intellectually capable of doing so
Agriculture arose to increase productivity so some could gain power/prestige
food-fight theory
2 theories of origin of archaic state
irrigation hypothesis, warfare/circumscription hypothesis
3 conditions that are necessary and sufficient for state to form
high population density, system of integration needed, possibility of controlled economy
Required permits before excavating or collecting on federal land
1906 Antiquities Act
Protect every cultural resource
1906 Antiquities Act
Intrusive to privacy
1906 Antiquities Act
First to deal with looting, vandalism, and development
1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Created National Register of Historic Places
1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Compliance law
Section 106 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Survey of area of potential effect
Section 106 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Required cultural resource impact studies for federal projects
Section 106 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
SHPO officer oversees compliance
Section 106 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Inventory heritage properties on federal land
Section 110 of 1966 National Historic Preservation Act
Regulated import/export of cultural objects
1970 UNESCO Convention
Dealt with looting and trafficking by increasing punishments (now a felony)
1979 Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA)
unassociated funerary objects
objects associated with the burial process (e.g., tombs)
Repatriation of human remains, funerary objects (both associated and unassociated), objects of cultural patrimony (heirlooms), sacred objects
1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)