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41 Cards in this Set

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anthropology
the comparative study of human behavior
archaeology
the study of human cultures through surviving material remains.
logos= study
archaios= ancient
key words:
ancient humans
culture
material remains
excavation
culture
learned human behaviors, values, and beliefs; generally shared by members of a society
material culture
the physical products of culture (art, houses, religious symbols, etc)
observation
noticing something factual
inference
a conclusion based on observation
hypothesis
an educated guess, CAN BE TESTED FURTHER
excavation
the digging up and recording of buried materials from the past
artifact
a man-made/influenced portable object that is found
feature
not portable "artifacts" (buildings, pits/ditches, etc.)
site
the accumulation of artifacts and features at a place where people lived or worked
context
associations; position of archaeological materials in time and space; essential for the meaningful interpretation of artifacts
stratum
a distinct layer or soil or debris
stratigraphy
the order of succession of layers of an archaeological site
Law of Superposition
the lowest layer is oldest, the topmost is the most recent
stratified site
site made up of several layers
one-layer or one-period site
site created by the behavior of humans during only one period, creating only one clear layer
chronology
the study of sequences of (linear) time and the subdivision of time into periods
relative dating
the dating of stratified materials based on their position relative to other materials found in the same layer or a similar layer elsewhere
leads to statement= X object is earlier than Y object
absolute dating
assigning calendar year dates or ranges of dates to material culture or historical events
leads to statement= X object dates to 450 BCE or between 450-425 BCE.
organic
(once living) remains survive well only if protected. organic remains turn to dirt easily
inorganic
(never living) remains survive better but can also break down when exposed to the elements, be stolen and re-used, and turn to rubble and dirt.
conditions that DAMAGE
tropical (rainforests)
acid soil
sand storms
moisture/rain
plant growth
conditions that PRESERVE
hot or dry
airless
waterlogged (lakes, bogs)
very cold/frozen
sealed in volcanic ash
how do things get destroyed?
- natural (earthquake, floods) or human (war, pollution) disasters
- poor climate conditions
- human and animal action (graffiti, theft)
- rebuilding, urban development, reuse
- abandonment: ends up falling down or theft or wearing away
- intentional burial (tomb)
what types of things tend to survive best?
features that are high up, large, of solid inorganic materials, and are culturally important.
example of organic materials
bones
teeth
leather
textiles
wood
example of inorganic materials
clay
stone
metal
plastic
glass
balk
when a horse or dog stops walking and pushes back
Ways to Find Sites
Survey
Aerial View (satellites, planes)
Detectors (metal, magnometer, sonar)
Erosion/Earthquakes (brings up to surface)
Accident
Tut lived...
1370 - 1352 BC
Tut's tomb was discovered..
1922
How long did it take to empty Tut's tomb?
10 years
Who's tomb was on top of Tut's?
Ramses VI
Who found Tut's tomb?
Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon
2 ways of excavation
1. removing layers one at a time
2. vertical
excavation specialists
soil analysts
geologists
people who specialize in dating techniques
programming specialists
photographers
artists
Starting a Dig
datum point- a spot or object which is used as reference for the exact vertical and horizontal locations.
areas are divided
remove the topsoil
Recording
diggers enter their data into computers.
Sieving the Soil
soil which is swept up during excavation is taken away and sieved, so small artifacts or bones that were missed can be found.
Processing Excavated info
artifacts are taekn to a lab and sorted.
special analysts determine information about everything