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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the placement of materials into caegories that can be used for identification and comparison--based on form and assumed function
the classification of materials based on morphology
the form or ppearance of an archaeological object (artifact, features)
descriptive aspects of an artifact or site, such as its size, content, material, or shape
quantitative attributes
measurable features such as length, width, number of threads per inch on textiles, etc
qualitative attributes
descriptive characteristics such as projectile point, material type, feature type, etc
a particular and distinctive form of an object or the way in which something is made
temporal types
artifacts or features of known age that can be used to date associate materials or activities... technologies and preferences change over time leading to different temporal markers, can be used for dating, does not work well with artifacts which change little over time
the materials, both artifacts and ecofacts, collected from a site and representing all of th eevidence of the activities at a site... classified for purposes of site-to-site comparison, reveals general similarities and differences
tools used primarily for grinding, smashing, or crushing various plant, animal, and mineral resources
classifying types of artifacts
stone tools, ceramics, metal, glass
flaked stone
tools manufacturered by chipping off peices of stone
stone from which flakes were struck
stone peices
utilized flakes
flakes used as is
tools flaked on both sides
tools flaked on only one side
flakes manufactured in particular shapes and sizes
objects made from clay and other inorganic materials typically fired at temps above 1100 degree F, usually containers, a good dating tool
ceramic types
terra-cotta, earthenware, stoneware, porcelain
made from coarse clays, fired at lower temps (bricks, tile, flower pots)
from coarse clays, fired at higher temps (pottery)
from finer clays, fired at higher temps
fine clays fired at higher temps, completely vitrified (glassy, materials melt together), "china"
any of a category of electropositive elements that usually have a shiny surface, are generally good conductors of heat and electricity, and can be melted or fused, hammered into thin sheets, or drawn into wires
to melt of ruse in order to separate the metallic constituents (copper, silver iron, lead), done to impure metals to remove the impurities
combinging metals to produce a new material
IE brass = copper + zinc,
bronze = copper + tin/arsenic
the science that deals with procedures used in extracting metals from their ores, purifying and lloying metals and creating useful objects from metals
produced by melting sand (silica) at high temps and allowing to cool quickly
radiometric techniques
dating methods based on principles of atomic decay
parent/daughter elements
radioactive isotapes decay into daughter elements
rate of decay
known rates of decay and accurate parent/daughter ratio measurements (half-life)
radiocarbon dating
most common radiometric dating technique, works with organic materials
a number of principal isotopes of carbon occur naturally... how many and what are they?
3... C12, C13, C14
what is the half life for radiocarbon dating?
the _____ clock starts when an organism ______
atomic, dies
after (#) generations of decay, there is too little left to accurately measure halflife
potassium argon dating
K40 decays into Argon and Calcium, the age of a rock can be determined by comparing the Argon gas to the K40
what is half life for potassium argon dating?
about 1.3 billion years
uranium dating
applicable only to limestone cave deposits, U238 decays into Thorium
what is the halflife for uranium dating?
4,470,000,000 years
fission track dating
baed on U238 decay in volcanic glass, manufactured glass, or ceramics
crystalline minerals in ceramics trap energy in the form of electrons from decaying U238, 235, and Th232, heating the material releases the material int he form of measurable light
electron spin resonance
microwave radiation forces the trapped energy to vibrate and be measured, tooth enamel, bone, and calcite
documented magnetic pole shifts, current pole position compared to positioin of iron particles in ecofacts, artifacts, and features
obsidian hydration analysis
obsidian absorbs moisture and forms bands, fresh flaked surface = new hydration front, band width = amount of time since flaking
studying and interpreting moral remains
the study of the composition of ancient populations
preserving bodies
frozen bodies, purposeful mummies, natural mummies
frozen bodies
freezing retards decay processes, found around the world
purposeful mummies
body is intentionally prepared/preserved, found in many parts of the world
natural mummies
not interntionally prepared/preserved, arid regions--body dries naturally, moist areas--chemical alterations tan the flesh
skeletal remains are ___ common than preserved remains
the study of bones
formal internment, funerary objects, tombs and momuments
secondary burials
allow bodies to decompose/deflesh, relocation, sorting, ossuaries
boxes, caves, chambers
burning, difficult to study
burned human remains
a life story inferred from skeletal evidence: appearance, health, age, sex, characteristics in relation to population
muscle attachments are ____ pronounces in men
forehead is more ____ in men
eye orbits are more ____ in men
chin is more ____ in men
brow ridges are more ___ in men
pelvic outlet is more ___ in men
sacrum is more ___ in men
small, narrow, curved
metric skeletal traits
average size of long bone
nonmetric skeletal traits
pathologies determining nutrition, health, and disease
antemortem or postmortem, trauma?, trephination... hole drilled in head, infectious disease, noninfectious disorders... cancer, tumors, osteoporosis
harris lines
lines on bones indicative of periouds of arrested growth, malnutrition
there is more ___ in the bones for herbivores
there is more ___ in the bones for carnivores
kennewich man
based on the Native American GravesProtection and Repatriation Act, five Native American groups claimed the remains as theirs, to be buried by traditional means
human ecologgy
the study of the relationship between humans and the environment
julian steward
cultural ecologist
cultural ecology
culture is a primary factor in adaptation to environment--similiar environments/adaptations, adaptations are short lived, result in changes in excisting culture or creat new ones
living organisms
nonliving--air, water, soil, etc
environment of the prehistoric past
the geographic place where an organism lives
the role an organism play sin its envrionment
a commodity used by an organism
carrying capacity
the number of organisms an environment can support at any given time
the analysis of the relationship of past people to their environment--environmental resonstruction, what resources were available, technology, effect on culture, effect on environment
analysis of landform change over time--plate tecctonics, volcanoes, rivers, glaciers, lakes
analysis of how geological and geomorphogical processes affect archaeological sites over time
study of pollen
rigid microscopic silica body that occurs in many plants
floral macrofossils
charred seeds or other plant parts
faunal remains
can indicate vegetation near a site
long term pattern of temp and precipitation for a region
short term manifestation of temperature and precipitation
long term patterns of past temperature and precipitation
successful ___ allows an organism to survive and reproduce
subsistence activities revolve around obtaining and processing the necessities of life
food, shelter, fuel, raw materials
there are three main elements of subsistence
diet, technology, organization
hunters and gatherers/foragers
live predominantly from wild foods, plant foods are usually the mainstay
low-intensity food production, small gardens, small numbers of domesticated animals
herding, breeding, consumption, and total exploitation of deomesticated animals, pastoral nomadism
intensive agriculture
large scale production of domestic plants and animals, animal labor, plows, irrigation, larger socieites
indirect evidence/direct evidence
ifyou have hundreds of deer bones, it's indirect evidence that they butchered and ate deer; if you have a diary that says they ate them, or a photograph of them eating them, it would be direct evidence
faunal remains
direct evidence--f it came out, it had to go in, coprolites--found individually or in concentrations, fut contents--from intestinal tract, cess--privy deposits and remnants
subsistence tehcnology
informs us about how members of a group made their living
subsistence organization
the management and control of resources is reflected in certain political and organization structures
number of identified specimens, number of specimens collected
minimum number of individuals, number of abundant elements, IE if there are 12 right femurs, but 37 left femurs, you know there had to be a minimum of 37 individuals
MNI does not equal _____
relative contribution
IE 5 rodents and 1 deer is found--you can't assume that rodents made up the majority of their diet
the study of prehistoric populations--size, distribution, density, age, sex, mortality, fetility