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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
7 most common materials in organic artifacts
bone, sinew, antler, hide, shell, wood, plant fiber
4 methods of organic artifact manufacture
broken, split, fractured, cut
2 parts of hide processing
scraping, tanning
traditional methods of tanning use ___ or ____
animal brains, urine
wood, bone, and antler are often used as ___ or ____ tools
processing, hunting
shell is often used for ____ or _____
decoration, tool for decoration
4 processing tools
flesher, antler tine pressure flaker, bison scapula hoe, awls
sinew is used almost exclusively as ____and _____
glue, binding
do not owe form to human behaviors unless they are a byproduct
what 2 methods are helpful in determining whether a bone is an artifact or ecofact?
residue, use/wear analysis
4 types of ecofacts
floral, faunal, human remains, soils
soils are also known as
the way in which humans interact with their environment to procure food and raw materials for basic needs
ecofacts are often a result of ____
3 research specialists in floral analysis
paleobotanist, paleoethnobotanist, palynologist
Studies ancient plant remains
Studies ancient domesticated (human modified) plant species
Studies plant pollens
4 types of floral evidence
wood, seeds, nutshells, opal phytoliths
Microscopic silica bodies formed naturally in living plants (distinctive shapes)
opal phytoliths
flora is stored in ____ and ____
pits, jars
flora is prepared in ____ and ____
cooking pots, hearths
flora is processed in ____
grinding stones
flora is disposed in ____ and ____
middens, coprolites
what is the major recovery method for larger plant remains?
A machine where soil samples from features are placed. Water comes up from beneath and floral remains are separated from the dirt and flow out into some sort of receptacle (screen or filter)
float machine
Mainly floral, out through spout
light fraction
On screen, mainly faunal/other
heavy fraction
Studies and analyzes the remains of animals from archaeological sites
5 types of faunal evidence
bone, teeth, shell, scales, hair
what recovery method is used for small faunal remains
float machine
3 problems in floral/faunal ID
determining human origin, counting, species ID
______may add species into the sample that were not used or inflate counts of species present
windblown pollens
2 ways to count flora
coprolites, artifacts associated
Counts the number of representative elements (bone types), and then takes the largest count of an element class as the number of animals in the archaeological sample
_____ on bone fragments can lead to inflated counts since some fragments may be from the same bone element
Study the biological nature of humans and their ancestors
biological anthropology
3 human remains specialists
bioarchaeologists, physical anthropologists, forensic anthropologists
Study human ancestors
Study morphological and physical characteristics of humans
physical anthropologists
Study physical and biological characteristics of human remains recovered
forensic anthropologists
2 types of mummies
intentional, natural
what makes natural mummies?
arid or anaerobic environments
when is a mummy an artifact?
if an indication of an activity, especially ritual behavior (human sacrifice, etc.)
3 burial contexs
mounds, cemetaries/tombs, ossuaries
multiple human internments in same burial pit
4 goals of skeletal analysis
age/sex determination, nature of burial/disposal, health study, manner of death
what 4 parts of the body does sex determination need?
pelvis, skull, femur, teeth
in what period can someone be aged?
when is sex determination impossible?
prior to puberty
if important bones are missing, how can sex be determined?
an analysis of ratios of isotopes drawn through bone collagen
stable isotope analysis
2 ways to study diet
physical markers on bones, stable isotope analysis
3 types of stable isotope analysis
carbon, nitrogen, stronium
used primarily to document plant usage
carbon stable isotope analysis
Used to distinguish between marine and land resources
nitrogen stable isotope analysis
Used to distinguish between meat and plant diets
strontium stable isotope analysis
5 conditions that mark skeleton
arthritis, combat traumas, tuberculosis, dental caries, poor nutrition
Plant and animal remains
_____ studies figure out how plant and animal remains accumulate in archaeological sites
_____ processes critical to inferences based on plant and animal remains
The animal bones found in an archaeological site
2 major places where animal bones are found
kill sites, camps/villages
ID and interpretation of animal remains from an archaeological site
faunal analysis
An individual who studies the faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites
zooarchaeologist/faunal analyst
What did Spencer discover at Agate Basin?
Spear points, bison bones
What did Hill deduce about the Agate Basin site?
said small group of Folsom hunters camped and killed bison and antelope, did not rely heavily on meat storage
In faunal analysis, a specific skeletal part of the body (e.g., humerus, sternum).
In faunal analysis, the classification of a skeletal element to a taxonomic category (e.g., species, genus, family)
A categorization of faunal remains, not to taxon, but to one of 5 categories based on body size
size classes
A skeletal collection of modern fauna of both sexes and different ages used to ID archaeological fauna
comparative bones
3 ways to tell faunal remains were deposited by humans
stone tool cut marks, burn marks, distinctive impact fractures
how do you know remains were deposited during a certain occupation? (2 ways)
remains not spread out, all bones equally weathered
2 ways to count bones
Number of identified specimens
Minimum number of individuals
The raw number of IDed bones (specimens) per species
a largely outmoded way of comparing archaeological bone frequencies
Useful for comparing large numbers of collections from different sites
Hard to reconstruct human behavior using this bone-counting method
The smallest number of individuals necessary to account for all IDed bones
Easier with fine-grained assemblages
a site with no additional overlapping occupations
fine-grained assemblage
Best when fine stratigraphic divisions are used and when bones are not overly fragmented
Used by Hill at Agate Basin
The head, mandibles, vertebrae, ribs, sacrum, and tail of an animal skeleton
axial skeleton
All parts of an animal excluding the axial skeleton
appendicular skeleton
broken toes could indicate...
...hard times
An estimate of what part of the year a particular archaeological site was occupied
how was seasonality determined at Agate Basin?
teeth of young bison
a ceremonial center in the Andes
Chavin de Huantar
What bone counting method was used at Chavin de Huantar
What kinds of animals were found at Chavin de Huantar
domesticated camelids
Native South American term for freeze-dried llama and alpaca meat
When Ch'arki is present in the puna, there are less ___ and ____ bones
head, foot
when was ch'arki made in Chavin de Huantar?
when herds were culled
Native American term for the treeless, windswept tablelands and basins of the higher Andes
An archaeologist who analyzes and interprets plant remains from archaeological sites in order to understand the past interactions between human populations and plants
when are plants preserved in humid climates?
when burned and carbonized
Nonmicroscopic plant remains recovered from an archaeological site
macrobotanical remains
The technique through which the fossil pollen grains and spores from archaeological sites are studied
Circular tube forced downward by mechanical drilling rig into a sediment record
core sampling
A chart showing the changing frequencies of different identified pollens through time from samples taken from archaeological or other sites
pollen diagram
Fluctuations in pollen percentages reflect...
...changes in plant densities
3 floral recovery/interpretation methods
screening, flotation, paleoethnobotany
The earliest well-established Native American culture, distributed through much of North America and dating 10,900 to 11,200 BC.
Tiny silica particles contained in some plants. Sometimes these fragments can be recovered from archaeological sites, even after the plants themselves have decayed
Take the shape of the cells in which they were deposited
site seasonality is determined using _____ floral remains
Rodents that build nests of organic materials and thus preserve a record, often for thousands of years, of changing plant species within the local area of the nest
wood rats
wood rat nests used to reconstruct _____and _____vegetational change
Pleistocene, Holocene
The post-Pleistocene geological epoch that began about 10,000 radiocarbon years ago and continues today
Important for archaeologists to make economic interpretations of subsistence data in light of ______
paleoenvironmental observations
Coprolites at Hidden Cave showed that... was stored
what food residues can be extracted from pottery?
Organic substances- including fats, oils, and waxes- that resist mixing with water; found in both plant and animal tissues
How are lipids IDed?
ratio of C 12 and 13
how people interact materially and symbolically with their environment
postprocessual archaeology
What was unique about wood at Mantaro Valley?
it had a symbolic dimension
Floods at _____ exposed sites and burials in the marsh
Carson Desert
_____ excavated 26CH1062
The study of the human biological component evident in the archaeological record
____ was a bioarchaeologist working in Stillwater Marsh
the study of bone
A set of human burials that come from a limited region and a limited time period. The more limited the region and the time period, the more accurate will be inferences drawn from analysis of the burials
burial population
Few grave goods means...
can not use temporal types to place burials within archaeological phases
A structure used by eastern North Americans to lay out the dead where the body would decompose. The bones would later be gathered and buried or cremated in a communal grave (bundle burial)
charnel house
Burial of a person’s bones, bundled together, after the flesh has been removed or allowed to decay off the bones
bundle burial
The angled edge of both halves of the posterior side of the pelvis; measurement of this angle is used to determine sex in human skeletons
sciatic notch
Teeth: Pattern and timing of ____ and ____ is consistent among human populations
crown formation, tooth eruption
The ends of bones that fuse to the main shaft or portion of bone at various ages; most bones are fused by age 25. This fact can be used to age skeletons of younger individuals
Where the two halves of the pelvis meet in the groin area; the appearance of its articulating surface can be used to age skeletons
pubic symphysis
3 methods to determine age
teeth, bone fusion, bone wear
4 ways to tell age based on teeth
crown formation, eruption, wear, loss
Larsen turned to ___ to determine quality of life at Stillwater
The study of ancient patterns of disease and disorders
Larson looked for 2 nonspecific stress indicators at Stillwater:
nutritional deficiencies, nonspecific infectious disease
nonspecific disease at Stillwater
little, except for iron deficiency anemia
Body _____ when iron is limited
produces more red blood cells
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance
porotic hyperostosis
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance
cribra orbitalia
3 reasons bones may arrest
disease, trauma, malnutrition
Horizontal lines near the ends of long bones indicating episodes of physiological stress
Harris lines
signs of growth arrest that disappear
Harris lines
Horizontal linear defects (shallow grooves) in tooth enamel indicating episodes of physiological stress
enamel hypoplasias
What type of growth arrest evidence is permanent?
enamel hypoplasias
What did Larsen attribute the enamel hypoplasias at Stillwater to?
fluctuations of food supply causing malnutrition
Larsen used ____and _____ to determine workload in an individual’s life
osteoarthritis, bone biomechanics
A disorder in which the cartilage between joints wears away, often because of overuse of the joint, resulting in osteophytes and eburnation
A sign of osteoarthritis in which bones develop a distinct “lipping” of bone at the point of articulation (e.g., at elbow or knee)
A sign of osteoarthritis in which the epiphyses of long bones are worn smooth, causing them to take on a varnish-like appearance
Cartilage disappears and articular surfaces rub against one another
what factor was severe for the Stillwater population?
Cross sections of the body’s long bones (arms and legs) used to analyze bone shape and reconstruct the mechanical stresses placed on that bone- and hence activity patterns
long bone cross sextions
Bones change cross sections as they respond to stress
bone biomechanics
The study of ancient demographic patterns and trends
3 paleodemographic parameters
life expectancy, age profile, patterns in age of death
Charts that depict the various ages at death of a burial population
mortality profiles
paleodemography works best for skeletal samples...
...from same biological population over short period of time
how is stature determined?
relating length of long bones to height
best bone for determining stature
what technique was not used at Stillwater?
Cavities are also called...
caries differentiate between...
...agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers
what did caries tell Larsen about the Stillwater people?
they were strictly hunter-gatherers
Diets can be reconstructed by analyzing ____and ____ stable isotopes preserved in bone
carbon, nitrogen
The organic component of bone
bone collagen
Measure ratio of ____ in bone collagen to determine dietary importance of classes of plants
carbon isotopes
what 2 questions can be answered with nitrogen stable isotopes?
marine/terrestrial? more/less meat?
At Stillwater, diet was...
...mix of plants and animals, all marsh-based
What was the large range of N values at Stillwater attributed to?
dietary varibility