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73 Cards in this Set

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Emporio
site on Chios in Asia Minor; settled in the 8th century, abandoned by 600; "acropolis" was surrounded by a wall; had free-standing houses dispersed over a wide-open area; had "Megaron Hall" and Temple of Athena
Zagora
site on Andros; settled by 800, abandoned around 700; centralized houses that shared party walls; open courtyard with communal temple; practiced animal husbandry and long-distance trade with Greece; had "big men" or basileis who lived in "rulers' dwellings" and had religious & secular control; unified, communal building settlement
Submycenaean period
1100-1050
Protogeometric period
1050-900
Geometric period
900-700
Late Geometric period
L. 8th C.
Orientalizing period
700-600
Archaic period
600-480
Classical period
480s-330s
Hellenistic period
330s-Roman conquest (2nd C.)
Increase in number of burials means..
Greater cross-section of society (e.g. both rich and poor) being buried
Dreros
site on Crete, had column bases, central hearth, repository (box), and bench; figurines in the sphyrelaton technique were found on the bench and thought to be Apollo, Leto, and Artemis
Koukounaries
site on Paros, had a temple of Athena (late 8th-early 7th century)
Etreria
site on Euboea, had a sanctuary to Apollo which included a "rulers' dwelling" (9th-early 8th centuries) and a hekatompedon or "100 footer" (c. 725 BCE) associated with outside altar
A. Mazarakis-Ainian
proposed that cult activities took place in "rulers' dwellings"
Apsidal peristyle
added to temple sites/rulers' dwellings at Thermon in Aetolia in the L. 8th-E. 7th C.
Sanctuary of Hera on Samos
did not have a rulers' dwelling, just an altar (earliest phase is 10th C. BCE) --> hekatompedon added L. 8th-E. 7th C) --> peristyle added around 700 BCE --> columns pushed out to the side of the building to line the walls in the mid 7th C.
hieron
sanctuary
Features of a sanctuary
altar, precinct, temple, auxiliary buildings and facilities
10 major gods
Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Hephaistos, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis
4 variable gods
Demeter, Dionysos, Hades, and Hestia
thusia
bloody and burnt sacrifice
Victims of sacrifice
ox, sheep, goat, pig, chicken
Auxerre "Goddess"
c. 640 BCE; cult statue or votive dedication?
Mantiklos Apollo
Thebes; c. 700-675 BCE; given as an anticipatory offering from Mantiklos, asking for some good favor
Votives from Samian Heraoin
found in 7th century wells; wood iterms, ivory items, more "rustic" or common items
Major Phoenician cities
Tyre, Sidon, Berytos (Beirut), and Byblos
What encouraged Phoenicians to migrate
Regular tribute paid to Assyria by mid 9th C. BCE
Main types of Phoenician settlements
Small trading posts and larger, urban trading posts
Example of small trading post
Toscanos (L. 8th C. BCE); had a storehouse; other such sites had small temples
Example of larger, urban ports of trade
Gadir (Roman Gades, modern Cadiz); 8th C. BCE; had associated cemetery and multiple sanctuaries
"Dipylon Lady"
figure found at Athens; made of ivory, wore a polos, and had rigid, arms-flat-to-the-side pose (all signs of eastern influences)
Kommos
site near Phaitos; Phoenician transport amphorae (jars) were found here; also had a Phoenician tri-pillar shrine, which was iconological sign of Phoenicia
Al Mina
port city on the Levantine Coast, found to contain 8th C. Euboean pottery and (7th or) 6th C. warehouses
Pithekoussai
island site; had cemetery, domestic architecture --> first sign of Greek settlement eastward; population between 5,000 and 10,000
Emporion
(smaller) foreign trading post
Apoikia
"home away from home"; founded by a mother polis
Megara Hyblaia
founded by Megara; public areas were set aside and reserved for public or religious buildings and built by mid 7th C. BCE
Reason for Greek and Phoenician westward expansion
The Greek situation; various pressures (population, land-hunger, political), commerce/trade; trade of metals
Posidonia (later Paestum in Campania)
mid 7th C.; division of plots of both the astu (city) and chora (country-side)
abecedarium
teaches alphabet
8th-7th century private inscriptions (short)
used for simple names and labels
8th-7th century private inscriptions (long)
used more for dedications, e.g. the Dipylon Oinechoe (Athens, c. 740 BCE), the Cup of Nestor (Pithekoussai, c. 735-720 BCE), Tataie's lekythos (Cumae, c. 675-650 BCE), the Mantiklos Apollo (Thebes, c. 650 BCE), and Nikandre Dedication (Delos, c. 650-625 BCE)
8th-7th century uses
simple labels, abecedaria, humorous or experimental graffiti, dedications
7th-6th century public inscriptions
law codes, boundary markers
Dreros "law code"
c. 650-625 BCE; set "term limits" for the kosmos/leader
Late geometric figural scenes (c. 750 BCE)
chariot processions, man vs. beast, prothesis scenes (wakes which show mourners), ekphora scenes (bringing body out to be buried)
Common elements in the asty
sanctuary of the patron deity; agora (a meeting or market-place); theater; houses and cemeteries
Parts of a Greek theater
theatron (observing play), orchestra (chorus sings from here), skene, proskenion (stage and backdrop), parados (sidewalk, main entrance)
Key feature of Hippodamian plans
90 degree angles
Olynthos
city in the Chalkidike; founded in 432 BCE, destroyed by Philip II in 348 BCE; excavations led by David M. Robinson; 10 houses per block (insulae); 6-8 people lived in each house; had alleys, party walls, and common roofs
Sites designed by Hippodamos
Miletos, Rhodes, and Piraeus (port of Athens)
Priene in Ionia
founded in mid 4th C. BCE; had agora, theatre, sanctuary, acropolis, etc.; shows grid patern (rigid adherence to grid pattern despite poor topography)
andronitis
men's place
gunaikonitis
women's place
kore
female grave marker
kouros
male grave marker
Main Mediterranean produce
olives, grapes, and cereals (barley and wheat)
Main Mediterranean produce
olives, grapes, and cereals (barley and wheat)
threshing
initial processing of grains
threshing
initial processing of grains
winowing
separates the wheat from the chaff by throwing both into the air and letting the wind blow away the chaff
winowing
separates the wheat from the chaff by throwing both into the air and letting the wind blow away the chaff
Attica's rural characteristics
had terraces for produce such as olives; farmhouses such as Legraina, Palaia Kopraisia
Attica's rural characteristics
had terraces for produce such as olives; farmhouses such as Legraina, Palaia Kopraisia
Thasos
marble quarries
Thasos
marble quarries
Gold found at...
Mt. Pangaion (Thrace) and Thasos
Gold found at...
Mt. Pangaion (Thrace) and Thasos
Silver at...
Mt. Pangaion (Thrace) and Thasos, Attica, and Siphnos
Silver at...
Mt. Pangaion (Thrace) and Thasos, Attica, and Siphnos
General trend in art
naturalism
General trend in art
naturalism