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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 stereotypes
treasure, spectacular sites, high-profile issues
basic definition of archaeology
the science/study of the past
layman anthropologist definition of archaeology
the study of prehistoric people or lifeways
advanced definition of archaeology
archaeology is the study of past humans and their behaviors through their material remains
3 types of archaeology
prehistoric, historic, pseudoarchaeology
The physical remains/traces produced by past human activities/behaviors on the world
archaeological record
Means used by archaeologists to find, recover, preserve, describe, or analyze remains/traces of past human activities
methods used to study archaeological record
Info/ideas used to assess meaning of remains/traces of human activity
archaeological theory
First archaeologist
Looked to physical residues of antiquity to answer questions about past
Distinguished between present and past
Looked to antiquity for moral philosophy
Wanted to imitate classical civilizations, so had to study them (classical archaeology)
Led to rediscovery of past by those in Western European intellectual tradition
Established modern discipline of archaeology
Studied Anglo-Saxon law and writings
Society of Antiquaries
Said that people had right to rebel against king
Society of Antiquaries
Proved existence of very ancient man
Boucher de Perthes
Antiquity of humankind was accepted in...
Efficient and organized annual archaeological campaigns
C.B. Moore
Riverboat archaeology
C.B Moore
First used stratigraphy
Nes Nelson
Fascinated with lore of Native Americans
Nes Nelson
First American PhD in archeology of North America
A.V. “Ted” Kidder
Promoted controlled excavation and analysis
A.V. “Ted” Kidder
Modified stratigraphy to construct cultural chronology of SW
A.V. “Ted” Kidder
Proved potential of aerial reconnaissance
A.V. “Ted” Kidder
Refined techniques to place stages of pottery development (seriation), which helped in establishing chronology of findings
James A. Ford
Criticized elders of community, including A.V. Kidder and his research
Walter W. Taylor
A Study of Archaeology
Walter W. Taylor
Accused archaeologists of compiling trait lists- classifying and describing artifacts for no real purpose- wanted them to quantify data and find meanings, test those hypotheses
Walter W. Taylor
New archaeology
Proposed that artifacts be examined in terms of their cultural contexts and be interpreted in their roles as reflections of technology, society, and belief systems
Lewis R. Binford
Promoted precise, unambiguous scientific methods
Lewis R. Binford
Archaeological investigation of disenfranchised groups
Kathleen A. Deagan
Spanish-Indian intermarriage and descent (mestizos)
Kathleen A. Deagan
The study of all aspects of humankind, employing an all-encompassing holistic approach
3 types of anthro
biological, cultural, linguistic
The study of humans as biological organisms
biological anthropology
The study of nonbiological aspects of humans- learned social, linguistic, technological, and familial behaviors
cultural anthropology
Questioning and observing people while living in their society
participant observation
People who study one culture in detail
The study of language use
linguistic anthropology
3 parts of culture
learned, shared, symbolic
learning culture
Research perspective that defines ideas, symbols, and mental structures as driving forces in shaping human behavior (culture as ideas)
ideational perspective
Can’t understand behavior w/o understanding what it symbolizes
ideational perspective
Research perspective that emphasizes technology, ecology, demography, and economics in defining human behavior (culture as adaptation)
adaptive perspective
culture as a system
adaptive perspective
scienctific approach is...
humanistic approach is...
Working from specific facts or observations to general conclusions
inductive reasoning
Reasoning from theory to account for specific observational or experimental results
deductive reasoning
made monograph of mounds, concluded that they were not Native Americans- instead, were related to Mexican/Central American Indians
Squier and Davis
compiled information on 2000 Moundbuilder sites, concluded that they were made by Native Americans
examined linguistics of 40+ tribes, excavated burial mound on his property, concluded that Native Americans built them
A doctrine, attitude, or way of life that focuses on human interests and values. Usually rejects a search for universals and stresses importance of individual’s lived experience
Dakota village humanistic excavation