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58 Cards in this Set

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An Yang
Site located in Northern China: capital of the Shang Dynasty. Ceremonial and administrative center surrounded by hamlets of pit houses. Public buildings at Anyang surrounded by scores of human and animal sacrificed burials. Discovered when inscribed bones began to appear on the antiquities market, which were traced to a small village in china. Pg. 351
"family level" a group of families (between 5 and 40 families, or 25 to 200 individuals) population density ranges from 1 to 0.1 persons per square mile. Membership is fluid. "Social Characteristics" hunting, fishing, gathering. Division of labor: age and sex, Sites are relatively small and temporary. States is achieved little variability in mortuary practices. Tools are generally simple, each family has similar set of tools. pg. 285-286
Ballgame: used a solid rubber ball 4-8 inches in diameter, court open at both ends, used hips to move ball, 2 players or teams, in the Late Classic period losers could be sacrificed. (Olmec)
Cahokia: A large settlement dating to the Mississippian period and located just outside of St. Louis. Fairmount pit houses, Mound 72. Stirling Morehead plain wares. Monks Mound complete wit wall trench houses. palisade begun. Sand prairie- decline in mound construction. Vulcan- Oneota from the plains/northern midwest. pg. 309
Capilco and Cuexcomate
Capilco and Cuexcomate: Sites located in Morelos south of the basin of Mexico at which excavations have produced insights into rural life under the Aztecs. pg. 406

Capilco: is the smaller of the 2 sites, with a total of 21 houses

Cuexcomate: has over 150 houses as well as temples and storehouses. These grew significantly during the Aztec expansion.
Caral: Peru, 14 miles from coast, 3000 people, 8 planned neighborhoods, 163 acres, 32 mounds including 6 large mounds/pyramids irrigation agriculture. This has to do with Cotton Preceramic sites. pg. 275
Change In Complexity over Time
Change in Complexity over Time: changes in complexity are not a result of changes in the genetic makeup of a population (intelligence) Changes in complexity are not unidirectional increases and decreases are both found in prehistory. Increases in complexity are not caused by time.
Chiefdoms: Early Chiefdoms- substinence still based primarily on hunting (horses) gathering, and fishing. Settlements dispersed but several large cemeteries, chiefs buried with belts of shell, bone, tusk, and tooth beads, copper rings, and mace heads. Agriculture production supports larger population densities and settlement sizes. Chief coordinates political relations over a broad area. Several villages with a total population of several thousand people. One settlement dominates the others in size, the home of the chief. pg. 311
Coyolxauhqui sculpture:a goddess killed by the aztec patron god Huizilopotchtli in a central event in Aztec mythology. Found while digging near a cathedral in Mexico city.

* before I start telling the myth: Huizilopotchtli=Hui

Ok so, In this myth, a woman name Coat living on the mountain of Coatepec was impregnated by a ball of feathers and became pregnant with the god Hui. When the four hundred children of Coat learned of her pregnancy, they were enraged. Coyo was one of these children, and se urged her siblings to kill their mother. At the very moment the siblings approached Coat to kill her, Hui was born full grown and immediately dressed for war. With a magical snake, Hui wounded Coyo and cut off her head. As Coyo's body fell down the mountain it broke into pieces as is depicted on the sculpture. Hui then chased down and killed the other 400 siblings. pg. 408
capital of incas
Early Dynastic period
Early Dynastic Period: Sumerian civilization:13 autonomous city-states. Large temples on ziggurats (a rectangular stepped tower, sometimes surmounted by a temple.) Cuneiform writing system, in which signs were impressed in clay, were used to write a range of languages, including Sumerian and Akkadian. Intensive agriculture: wheat, barley, vegetables, dates, cattle raising, fishing.
Egyptian Civilization: Narmer the first pharaoh, unifies upper and lower Egypt. Hierakonpolis on the upper Nile. Narmer tablet commemorates event. Capital established at Memphis. Irrigation to redirect floodwaters to fields.
Egypt (agriculture)
Egypt (Agriculture): Nile river flows 4000 miles from its source in to the Mediterranean Sea. Annual, but variable, floods on the Nile dump fresh organic-rich sediment on the floodplain. These were used for agriculture. Autonomous villages along the Nile. Wheat, Barley, Sheep, Goats, Pigs, and Cattle. Wild foods also important. pg. 360
El Paraiso
El Paraiso: Nine Architectural complexes 3 stories high. 100,000 tons of quarried stone used in construction. Little occupational debris. Peru
Empire: political entities that brings together a diverse and heterogenous group of societies under a single ruler.

The Incan Empire
The Aztec Empire
Giza Plateau
Giza Plateau: the site of construction of the pyramids of Cheops, Cepheron, and Mycerinus- monuments representing the apex of pyramid construction in Old Kingdom Egypt.
Gordon Childe
Urban Revolution: Giza Plateau: the site of construction of the pyramids of Cheops, Cepheron, and Mycerinus- monuments representing the apex of pyramid construction in Old Kingdom Egypt.
Harrappan Script
Harappan Script:A script, found mostly on sealings, that has not been deciphered. writing is logo syllabic (sounds and words) 400 different pictographic symbols. Some of the writing names individuals and their ranks. Also known as Indus Script refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization.
Harrappan State (power)
Harappan State Powers: urban centers developed in the Indus Valley. The people of the Harappan civilization lived in highly organized cities with a bureaucracy that used a writing system, seals, and weights. The influence of this bureaucracy was so pervasive that even bricks were made to a standard size. The power of the Harappan state is vividly expressed by its construction and maintenance of an urban sewage system unparalleled among early state societies. Although the vitality of the Harappan society is evident, the structure of the state remains obscure. The identity of the elite, the basis of their claim to power, and their relation to other sectors of society remain largely unknown. The harappan elite seem to have not had a difference between regular society and themselves.
Inca: This empire thrived for over a century. At it's peak the empire ruled over 12 million people from Chile to Ecuador.
Inca I (Tahuantinsuyu)
Royal treatment at Machu Picchu. Highly integrated economic system of fishing, herding, and farming. Extensive terracing and leveling to increase agricultural production. Relocation of ethnic groups to reduce rebellion.
Inca II
9600 Miles of paved roads. Runners at 1 mile intervals could relay messages 1440 miles in 5 days. Monumental architecture based on stone cutting and fitting. Reserve army could be called on short notice. In 1533 Incans were invaded by Francisco Pizzaro.
Indus: Area extending along the course of the Indus River and covering much of modern Pakistan and the Kutch and Gujarat provinces of India.
Indus River Valley: spring snow melt in the Himalayas triggers massive flooding. Broad, flat flood-plains with high agricultural potential. River navigable over much of its length. Foothills and mountains contain minerals, metals, and other trade goods.
a system of knotted strings used by the Inca to record information.
A concept that combines the virtues of balance and justice and that was a central importance to Egyptian Society. The breakdown of centralized rule during periods of collapse is described in Egyptian documents as a fundamental, even cosmic, calamity. pg. 364
Macchu Picchu
Machu Picchu: An Incan Royal estate on a high mountain peak at the western end of the Urubamba Valley. Built by Pachacuti Inca Yapanqui. A small walled settlement that includes royal and aristocratic complexes built in the classic Inca masonry style in which stone blocks are carefully fit together. A large number of shrines, are built around striking natural rock outcroppings.
Maya (characteristics)
Maya (Characteristics): Hundreds of pyramids, buildings, sculptures, and paintings. Warfare themes common, Agricultural settlements around ceremonial centers. Canals for water and drainage. Writing System. Also had Mayan Calendar.
Maya (agriculture)
Maya (Agriculture): Settlements around ceremonial centers, and canals for water and drainage, maize, beans, pumpkins, and slash and burn
Maya cities (collapse)
Maya Cities (collapse): the cities of southern Mayan lowlands collapsed. New construction ended and the cities were gradually deserted. Also cycles of violence and warfare. The need to feed the large populations, increasing power of nobility led to a weakening of a power. Severe droughts
Mehrgrah: Mehrgarh, (Urdu: مﮩرگڑھ ) one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on what is now the "Kachi plain" of today's Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia."[1]
Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi, Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BC–5500 BC.
Archaeological Significance.
Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization. "Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization," according to Ahmad Hasan Dani "There we have the whole sequence, right from the beginning of settled village life."[4]
Middle Horizon
Middle Horizon: 2 great empires, Tiwanaku (south) and Wari (North), Wari expanded agriculture with Terracing. Tiwanaku reclaimed high altitude land for potatoes and other crops.
Monks Mound
Monks Mound: the principal mound at cahokia. rises over 30 meters in height in a series of 4 terraces, covers an area of more than 60,000 meters and contains over 600,000 cubic meter of earth.
Morton Fried
Morton Fried: defined four types of societies: egalitarian, ranked, stratified, and state.

Egalitarian: the only differences in status are based on skill, age, and gender.
Ranked: there is a hierarchy of prestige not linked to age, gender, or ability.
Stratified: access to key resources is linked to prestige.
States: can be defined as societies in which power is organized on a supra-kin basis or as a society integrated by a bureaucracy that uses force.
Natchez: Native American living in Mississippi, complex chiefdom characteristics. Unusual system of nobility classes and exogamous marriage practices.
Nazca Lines
Nazca Lines: Overlaps Moche, polychrome pottery, dispersed settlements, central ceremonial site with temple, Geoglyphs-Nazca lines, geometric figures, lines, and animals.
Nile: The valley was lush vegetation descending from the Ethiopian highlands and standing in sharp contrast to the surrounding desert. Helps for irrigation, brings fertile soil to the banks which can be used in agriculture. Helped to transport, goods along river.
Olmec: the earliest complex society in mesoamerica. olmec sites are located along the gulf coast of mexico.

South Gulf Coast, Thick mangrove swamp with heavy rainfall, the name "Olmec" means "rubber people" in Nahuatl, the Aztec language.Ceremonial centers: San Lorenzo and La Venta with platform mounds and ceremonial complex. Large sculpted heads, slash and burn cultivation of Maize, beans, sweet potatoes, and squash.
MORE OLMEC: trade in jade, iron ore, obsidian, bitumen, magnetite mirrors, shark, teeth, stingray spines, cocoa, pottery. Olmec pottery and carvings found throughout mesoamerica. Ballgame invented, Olmec as "mother culture"
Cascajal block discovered by workmen, Epi-Olmec: after the classic olmec.
First long count date on stela C from Tres Zapotes.
Proto- Indo European
William Jones,
Described and account for language change
group languages into related families, reconstruct extinct languages, develop theories of language change.
Comparative linguistics, languages with similarities are grouped together. common reconstruction of root words.
Pueblo Bonito
Pueblo Bonito: a massive 650- room complex, the largest Great House in Chaco Canyon. Social Inequalities, due to burials. Debate over construction due to drought or trade.
Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
-dates to 196 BC and praises Ptolemy Epiphanes for his generosity
-inscriptions in three different scripts
-upper inscription was unreadable and hieroglyphic
-middle was Demotic [cursive form of hieroglyphic writing]; translated in pieces
-it's assumed all three are the same message
bottom was greek
Second Intermediate Period
38.)Second Intermediate period
Disputes and instability
Asian nomads (called the Hyksos) penetrate the lower Nile Valley
Theban kings continue to rule in the south
Bronzeworking, horse, chariot, composite bow introduced
documentary records indicate king who ruled nobility.
conscription for public works and military service
numerous military campaigns
near the end of Shang, An-yang becomes the capital
Social Status
The honor or prestige associated with one’s social position. It can be achieved through personal effort. It can also be ascribed by inheritance.
South America (Ecology)
Three Environmental zones:
Coastal strips: (desert)
Andes Mountains: (temperate)
Amazon Basin: (humid tropical)
Southern Ceremonial Complex
Southern Ceremonial Complex
AKA Southern Cult
Distinctive iconography spans most of the Mississippian area
Iconography- similar stylistic items
-related to N.Am. ceremony celebrating the corn and the eating of the green corn.
All fires were extinguished, then fire lit with a fire drill to light all the other fires.
Historic late summer busk or green corn ceremony may be related. 4 days of feasting and dancing to purify everyone in the villages and surrounding villages.
Some purification practices believed that using the leaves of the black tree which made you vomit would purify you and let you start anew.
State Societies
State societies
Agriculturally based
Socially stratified, endogamous strata
Ascribed status, large differences in wealth and power
Craft specializing
Urban settlements
Primary states emerge from cultural environment of chiefdoms. Lower reaches of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
A ring of massive standing stones on the Salisbury Plain, England, that was constructed beginning in the Early Neolithic and Ending in the Bronze age.
Article-Megalithic Monuments:
Assemblages of massive stones, including Stonehenge are found by the 1,000s in Europe dating to the Neolithic period. It is one of the most famous monuments of the megalith tradition, with a ring surrounded by a bank and a ditch, situated on the Wiltshire Plain of Southern Britain. The ring was built in phases, starting around approx. 2800BC and was completed sometime after 1100BC. Dated using calibrated carbon-14 dates.

Tahuantinsuyu: the incan empire, before collapse and spanish influence.

Tawantinsuyu: Inca Empire; the name means "the four parts together." (Spanish)
Capital of the Aztec Empire, was the largest indigenous city ever built in the Americas. At that time, it was one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city ever built in Mesoamerica. It was built on an island in Lake Tetzcoco in the Valley of Mexico and was connected to the mainland by a series of causeways. At the center of the city rose the great twin pyramids of the Templo Mayor, the spiritual center of the Aztec universe
An enormous city with a population of over 80,000 people located in the highland Valley of Mexico. The Aztecs treated the city with reverence as “the place where gods are made.” The name Teotihuacán is not the original name of the city, but rather the name used by the Aztecs, which in their language Nahuatl, means “the place where gods are made
-on the shores of lake Titicaca at 12,500 ft elevation
- imposing temple mounds
-fine stonework, sunken courts with stelae
Trends in illicit trade in antiquities
White temple on 12m (40 ft) ziggurat-a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound
7500 person years of labor to create
Pictures on Origins of State Mesopotamia
Temple and grounds had ceremonial and public structures
Ubaid Period
5300-3600 BC
- first colonization of southern Mesopotamia
- pottery, clay figurines, houses of reeds and mud bricks, irrigation
- growth of major settlements and fortifications
-slight population decline
-first agriculture took place outside of floodplain
White temple on 12m (40 ft) ziggurat-a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound
7500 person years of labor to create
Pictures on Origins of State Mesopotamia
Temple and grounds had ceremonial and public structures
Uruk Period
Uruk period
Settlement clusters
Shift to a 3 level and then 4 level hierarchy
Emergence of city-states
Wheel-thrown, mass-produce pottery
Developed method to create a more efficient standardization method
Stamp and cylinder seals
Stamp-mark of ownership
Cylinder-larger mark, rectangular b/c rolled on
Clay balls- hollow with token inside reflecting the shipment
Shipping lists-form of insurance on the dryed or baked pottery, told receiver whether or not items were stolen during shipping
Pictographic signs and clay tokens
Craft specialization probable
features of an urban settlement. Functioned like a classic state
Wari's influence and roads spanned 1000 miles. Cite of wari covered 10 squre km.
Courts, galleries, and chambers
More Compartmentalized than tiwanaku
William Jones
A liguistic prodigy who eventually learned 13 languages thoroughly and 28 reasonably well.
Appointed judge of Supreme Court in Bengal (india)
Fascinated by indian culture
Xia Dynasty
1st dynasty in china
Erlitou-741 acres with four occupation phases
Elite burials during 3rd and 4th phases
X-Ray fluorescence
involves illuminating a sample with x-rays and measuring the amount of light given off as a function of wavelength. Suitable analysis of this light spectrum (which can be fully automated) reveals the concentration of the various elements in the sample. This approach allows for the rapid assessment of elemental abundances in sediment cores that have been split down the middle, producing records that are far more detailed than what could be expected from extracting and measuring individual samples.
Subsistence base still millet
Slash and burn agriculture
Villages often contain one building larger than the others
Western Zhou Dynasty
Bronze Vessels and sculpture
Massive irrigation works
Highly-statified society with extensive human sacrifice
Eastern Zhou Dynasty
770-221BC j
Bronze, iron, and gold working
Confucious 551-479BC, Analects written after his death