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74 Cards in this Set

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Conventions: Elevation
-drawing/photo with no distortion and shows proportions (can't see through.)
Conventions: Plan
-horizontal cut to the building which shows the layout (Villa Rotunda)
-floor plan-
- overhead view of the layout-
Conventions: Section
Shows the quality of the space (Villa Rotunda)

(Usually can see through the space)
What is 'a form of dialogue'?
Environment with the past and future:
It is the environment we build for ourselves, and which, as we grow in experience and knowledge, we change and adapt to our expanded condition.
Detail (Scale)
Human beings using their hands. passion and time put into something a machine can't do.
Building (Scale)
One building and its relationship to your body.
Urban (Scale)
Several buildings together (city or campus) - more than one-
3 levels of scale
What is the part that isn't structure per se?
-circulatory space
-courtyard or walkway
What other structures does architecture consist of?
All the buildings in a group. Both the "great" and "ordinary" ones surrounding it.
-Aqueducts: Pont du Gard
-Courtyards and Bridges
What is architecture?
Architecture touches us, shapes our behavior, and conditions our psychological mood. It is the environment we build for ourselves and which, as we grow in experience and knowledge, we change and adapt to our expanded condition. It includes buildings, urban spaces, and landscapes.
-It is a nonverbal form of communication.
-Incorporates decisions and choices to build.
-Physical record of human activity/aspirations.
Conventions: Facade
What the building faces to the public's eye. Where is the front?
What is the Vitruvian Triad?
Function, structural stability, and beauty.
What is Function? (VTriad)
Purpose and use of the architecture.
What is Structural Stability? (VTriad)
How well does the structure hold and how the material weathers over time.
What is Aesthetics> (VTriad)
The beauty of the building.
What is the expression of function zones?
Diagram of building that has the bottom floor dedicated to the public, middle half to office space, and upper half for mechanical.
Symbolic function?
Make a visible statement about its use. Except some correspondence between what the building appears to suggest its use is and what it actually is. (Cathedral, doughnut shop, boiler chapel)
Circulatory function?
Does the layout have clairty, is it easy or hard to move through the space?
Psychological Function?
SALK institute: What are the human needs of the building, the thought of the unmeasurable.
Building Type- classified on what?
Based off the pragmatic utility- the accommodation of a specific use or activity in a specific room or space.
Lateral Forces:
Sideways force- wind or earthquake
Gravitational Forces:
Downward force that acts upon everything on earth.
Tensile Force or Tension:
Molecules are pulled apart: bridge
Compressive Force or Compression:
Pushing molecules together: brick walls
Shear Reaction:
Breaks at the max stress: Cantilever with no reinforcement
Both tension and compression acting
Materials- Earth:
Simplest building block. Resist compressive forces, but not best natural for the job.
Puddled Adobe:
Casa Grand, Clay soil with H2o and straw pillrd.
Wattle and Daub:
Plant like members made and covered with mud. No water, no mrats. Resist lateral forces. Sit up on stones.
Adobe Block:
No heat, baked in the sun and helps make arches
Rammed earth:
Same as adobe but with cement and burned limestone for weathering.
What reacts to tension and compression?
Wood, composites, steel, steel reinforced concrete.
Most adobe structures are covered in _______?
Burnt lime- limestone for protection.
What is the difference between Bricks and Blocks?
Bricks- fired- chemical change. Blocks- backed in the sun= no molecular change.
Straw bale:
Compressive quality, added earth stucko for breathing, covered in plastics while building, then covere with earthen stucko.

-Instilation valule-compressive and tensile, but on top of rebar. Only use compressive- Rebar acts as tensile.
Wood in tension:
Usually in beams-take most pressure even though it will bend. Resist both forces.
Wood in compression:
Usually in posts- take most pressure even though it will bend. Resist both forces.
Smaller pieces to form stronger structures, but you need a skilled craftsman to carve the stone (stonehenge)
You need large labor force to build structures efficiently. HUge compressive forces
Helped build things with arches, more expensive, need a high level of skill. Huge compressive forces.
Concrete masonry units:
Made and used for large building. 3 bricks= height of one masonry unit.
Compressive but no tensile strength. Prone to breaking.
In compression and tension. Not as expensive and durable, but still melts. Fire proof because covered with terra cotta or brick.
Steel in tension only:
A lot more durable with cables. Sometimes fabric structure for roof.
Cast Iron:
No tensile properties. First started wtih cast iron...not fire proof. Brittle. Only had compressive qualities.
5 years to cure/built with brick then covered. (aquaducts, pantheon)
Brick support, concrete infill
ancient roman concrete- les weight and great strenght.
Steel-reinforced concrete:
modern concrete- really thin structures with great strength. Tilt structure and pour concrete in place with reinforcement bars. Falling watter- Concrete bars reincorced.
Synthetics: plastics
foam used as instillation. Reinforced concrete between plastic.
Kevlar- 5 times as strong as steel.
What path is the sun taking in the winter/summer
High angle in summer- block.
Low angle in winter- allow in.
Winter- 34 degrees..rise in east/set in west. (keep sun out)
Summer- 82degrees. East/northwest. (lets light in)
Wind patterns
Example would be Chicago.
Hot are more dense molecules than cold.
Tucson- Hot outside and cold inside. Chicago. Cold outside and Hot inside.
Available materials:
Greeks had timber until they used it all. What has the lowest impact on the environment!
What is the effect of architecture on the enviornment?
It depletes non renewable resources:copper, water, metal or stone, fossil fuels, plastics. Find the least impactful material.
What are design responses
passive solar heating, cooling strategies.
Passive solar design: south elevation:
wind- ventilation..allow sun in during winter, not summer.
Parasol- provide shade. Cool down building underneath.
Shading windows (block sun from hitting windows.)
glass acts as conductors of heat. Trees block out sun.
Wind patterns and Natural ventilation
Courts of Justice
Adobe construction and heat storage/transfer
properties keep heat out/absorbs heat through roof.
What has changed the most for the architect since ancient times?
WE have to take care of the planet. And Computer modeling- structural systems, elements, sustainability.
Vitruvius: What is practice? What is Theory?
Architects must have booth. PRactive vs. book knowledge. Knowing how to do something vs. why we do what we do.
The question of the architect's social responsiblity?
Willian McDonough:ARchitects responsible for public well being. Wrote manifesto that is up to architects to refuse to use materials- toxic.
architect's social responsiblity
education...professional tools with less harmful effects to environment and self.
elements of passive solar design?
Wind, parasol, shading window.
methods of defining space/spatial experince:
physical,, perceptual, conceptual, behavioral
physical space:
air bound by the walls of a building- quantifiable
perceptual space:
space that can be conceived- extends beyond physical boundaries
conceptual space:
stored memory of content map (map in our minds)
Behavioral space:
space you actually move through (behavior taken on by space. Functions/space created when you have a different kind of behavior (church, outdoors)
three uses of ornament?
pure visual design. strict utilitarian purpose- enhancing longevity of building. Accoustical function.
symmetry vs. asymmetry..
-equal distance/ordered variety
- mathematical relationship to picturesque
-how big is aspect to the human body is architecture.
fluidity0 inter-connect two spaces
calm and peaceful because it is defined in a balance/peaceful space.