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52 Cards in this Set

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Adverse Effect = hypoglycemia
sulfonylurea, meglitinides, pramlintide
Adverse Effect = weight gain
sulfonylurea, thiazolidinediones
Adverse Effect = GI distress
sulfonylurea, metformin, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, pramlntide (nausea)
adverse effect = photosensitivity
sulfonylurea
adverse effect = disulfiram rxn
sulfonylurea
adverse effect = alteration in taste
metformin
adverse effect = lactic acidosis
metformin
adverse effect = hepatic failure
thiazolidinedionesm alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (hepatotoxicity), meglitinides (caution use in liver DFXN)
adverse effect = hematologic
thiazolidinediones
adverse effect = edema
thiazolidinediones
adverse effect = HA
meglitinides
advantage = prevention option
metformin,
Acetohexamide
1st generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Choloropropamide
1st generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Tolazamide
1st generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Tolbutamine
1st generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Glimerperide
2nd generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Glipizide
2nd generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Glyburide
2nd generation sulfonylurea
-inc B cell secretion of insulin
-30 min B4 meal
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain, gi distress, photosensitivity, disulfiram rxn
-CI's: preg, hepatic/renal DFXN, sulfa allergy?
Metformin
-inhibits hepatic glucose production, enhances peripheral muscle glucose uptake
-Adverse effects: GI distress, alterations in taste, lactic acidosis
-CI's: SCr >1.4/1.5, acute liver d, active alcoholic, h/o lactic acidosis, HF, hold 48 hrs IV contrast
-Advantages: neutral effect on lipid profile, wt loss, not -> hypoglycemia, prevention option
Pioglitazon
-enhances periph muscle glucose uptake, inhibits hepatic glucose production
-adverse effects: hepatic failure, GI distress, hematologic, wt gain, edema
-CI's: active liver D, severe HF
-Advantages: lower insulin reg, not -> hypoglycemia, neutral on lipid profile
-disadvantages: cost, wt gain, max response @ 12 wks
Rosiglitazon
-enhances periph muscle glucose uptake, inhibits hepatic glucose production
-adverse effects: hepatic failure, GI distress, hematologic, wt gain, edema
-CI's: active liver D, severe HF
-Advantages: lower insulin reg, not -> hypoglycemia, neutral on lipid profile
-disadvantages: cost, wt gain, max response @ 12 wks, may dec LDL
Acarbose
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
-inhibits action of intestinal alpha-glucosidase, delays breakdown of ingested carbs, reduces postprandial hyperglycemia
-adverse effects: Gi distress, hepatotoxicity
-drug interactions: digestiv enzymes, intestinal absorbants
-Advantages: do not -> hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinemia, possible prevention option
-Disadvantages: less effective then other agents, GI distress, method of TX
Miglitol
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
-inhibits action of intestinal alpha-glucosidase, delays breakdown of ingested carbs, reduces postprandial hyperglycemia
-adverse effects: Gi distress, hepatotoxicity
-drug interactions: digestiv enzymes, intestinal absorbants
-Advantages: do not -> hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinemia, possible prevention option
-Disadvantages: less effective then other agents, GI distress, method of TX
Repaglinide
Meglinitide
-similar to sulfonylurea
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, HA, caution for use in liver DFXN
Netaglinide
Meglinitide
-similar to sulfonylurea
-adverse effects: hypoglycemia, HA, caution for use in liver DFXN
Pramlinitide
-supresses glucagon release, slows gastric emptying, enhances insulin action following a meal
-Adverse Effects: N, hypoglycemia
Extenatide
incretin hormone
-synthetic form of extendin4 - Glia monster
-adjunctive therapy w/ metformin/ sulfonylurea
-binds to GLP1 receptors (inc glucose dependent insulin secretion, moderate glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, dec food intake)
Catopril
ACEI
-reduce glomerular capillary pressure by inhibition of angio II concentrations
-dec proteinuria, progression of kidney disease
-good for DM1 w/ proteinuria
Enalapril
ACEI
-reduce glomerular capillary pressure by inhibition of angio II concentrations
-dec proteinuria, progression of kidney disease
-good for DM1 w/ proteinuria
Losartan
selective inhibition, AT1 receptor, reduction of proteinuria
Irbersartan
selective inhibition, AT1 receptor, reduction of proteinuria
ACEI and ARB combo therapy
dec tissue angio II to a greater extent then either agent alone, dec urinary albuminuria/proteinuria
Amlopidine
Ca channel blockers
-sig dilation of the afferent arteriole resulting in loss of renal autoregulation
-inc intraglomerular capillary pressure and may inc proteinuria
-reduce glomerular pressure and reduce proteinuria
Felodipine
Ca channel blockers
-sig dilation of the afferent arteriole resulting in loss of renal autoregulation
-inc intraglomerular capillary pressure and may inc proteinuria
-reduce glomerular pressure and reduce proteinuria
Albuterol
B2 agonist
-stim adenyl cyclase and inc formation cAMP
-adverse Rxn = tachycardia, skeletal muscle tremor, hypokalemia, HA
Pirbuterol
B2 agonist
-stim adenyl cyclase and inc formation cAMP
-adverse Rxn = tachycardia, skeletal muscle tremor, hypokalemia, HA
levalbuterol
B2 agonist
-stim adenyl cyclase and inc formation cAMP
-adverse Rxn = tachycardia, skeletal muscle tremor, hypokalemia, HA
Ipratropium
anticholinergic
-competative inhibitor of cholinergic receptors -> bronchodilation
Adverse RXN = dry mouth, blurred vision
Beclomethasone
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Budesonide
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Flunisolide
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Fluticasone
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Triamcinolone
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Salmeterol
long acting B2 agonist
-stim adenyl cyclase and inc formation of cAMP -> relax airway smooth muscle and bronchodilation
Formoterol
long acting B2 agonist
-stim adenyl cyclase and inc formation of cAMP -> relax airway smooth muscle and bronchodilation
Cromolyn
mast cell stabilizer
-alteration in fxn of delayed Cl channels, inhibiting cellular activation -> dec release of pro-inflammatory cytokines
-very well tolerated
levalbuterol
B2 agonist
-stim adenyl cyclase and inc formation cAMP
-adverse Rxn = tachycardia, skeletal muscle tremor, hypokalemia, HA
Ipratropium
anticholinergic
-competative inhibitor of cholinergic receptors -> bronchodilation
Adverse RXN = dry mouth, blurred vision
Beclomethasone
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Budesonide
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis
Flunisolide
Corticosteroid
-anti-inflammatory
Adverse RXN = cough, dysphonia, thrush, fluid retention, wt gain, mood alteration, adrenal axis suppression, growth suppression, HTN, DM, cataracts, osteoporosis