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189 Cards in this Set

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German Expressionism
Architecture = anti-rational and utopian…transparency and dynamism
Dutch Expressionism
1.where?
2.Whatwas it like?
1.“Wendigen” based in Amsterdam
2. Expressive structure, construction process-related and fantastic detail
What were 2 houses of Dutch Expressionism?
- H. P. Berlage: Amsterdam Stock Exchange (1897-1903)
- Michael de Klerk: Eigen Haard Housing project (1913-21)
The De Stijl “The Style” Movement in Holland
Who?
Mondrian and his dejistil ideas.
- Theo Van Doesburg: intellectual leader of De Stijl Movement
-Oud and rietveld
- Piet Mondrian: painter = reductionist abstraction w/ primary colors
The De Stijl “The Style” Movement in Holland
-describe the style
- Architecture = universal, spatially unbounded, and technically modern
The De Stijl “The Style”
-name 2 houses
- J.J.P. Oud: Hook of Holland Housing project, Rotterdam (1924)
- Gerritt Rietveld: Schroeder House, Utrecht (1924)
Russian Constructivism (very influential in European Modernism)
-describe
-this was "crushed" by
Modern technology, expression of circulation and super graphics

- Movement crushed by Stalin and Soviet Neo-Classicism
Russian Constructivism
-name 2 buildings
Vladimir Tatlin: Monument to 3rd International Congress (1919)
- Konstantin Melnikov: Worker’s Club, Moscow (1927-28)
Futurism
-______utopian movement
-Describe
-Italian
-Bold massing w/o ornament, expressive circulation, verticality
Futurism
-name 2 buildings
- Antonio Saint’Elia: “Cite Nuova (New City) Exhibition” (1914)
- WW I Memorial, Como by G. Terragni
Italian Modernism (Italian Rationalism)
-describe
- Reconciliation of neo-classicism and industrialization
Italian Modernism (Italian Rationalism)
-Peoples and buildings
- Giuseppe Terragni:
Apartment Buildings, Como
Kindergarten School, Como
Casa del Fascio (now Casa del Popolo), Como (1932-36)
- Cities of Childhood
German Expressionism
-Peoples and buildings(4)
- Hans Polzeig: Water Tower at Posen (1911)
- Bruno Taut: Glass Pavilion at Werkbund Exhibition, Cologne (1914)
- Rudolf Steiner: Goetheanum (1928), Utopian Community, Dornach
- Erich Mendelsohn: Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1920-21)
Henri Van de Velde
-established________
-rejected______
-Logical use of_______
-name 1 building
- Established Weimer School of Applied Arts (1905)
- Rejected both classical and natural ornament
- Logical use of materials and rational shapes
- Werkbund Cologne Exposition 1914: concrete theater
Werkbund Cologne Exposition
-when?
-what?
1914: Model Factory Prototype
- Hypothetical manufacturing plant with attached office block
- Rooftop recreation facility influenced by FLW
- Use of glass curtain wall & transparency to expose circulation
- Formal axial symmetry link office and manufacturing buildings
Gropius combines School of Applied Arts & Art Academy at Weimer
to create The Bauhaus school for design
The Bauhaus “House of Building” at Weimer by gropius
Education combined art/design and craft workshops
The Bauhaus “House of Building” at Weimer by gropius
Design taught as an abstract discipline…often by abstract painters
The Bauhaus “House of Building” at Weimer by gropius
- Art/design and craftsmanship to shape industrial production
The Bauhaus “House of Building” at Weimer by gropius
Conflicts between faculty/students and conservative community
The Bauhaus “House of Building” at Weimer by gropius
Bauhaus interiors created in school workshops
new Bauhaus at Desseau designed by Gropius
-style bauhaus
Asymmetrical building design w/ expression of different functions
new Bauhaus at Desseau designed by Gropius
Use of freestanding curtain wall and reinforced concrete frame
new Bauhaus at Desseau designed by Gropius
Architectural design added to curriculum
new Bauhaus at Desseau designed by Gropius
Son of a stonemason – practical experience in building
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Worked for furniture designer Bruno Paul & Peter Behrens (1908-11)
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
) Unbuilt early projects:
- Friedrichstrasse Office Tower (1911)
- Glass skyscraper (1920-21)
- Concrete office block (1922)
- Brick country house (1923)
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Deutscher Werkbund project: exhibit was building and furnishings
German Pavilion at the Barcelona International Exposition (1929)
aka “The Barcelona Pavilion”: landmark building in Modernism
Expressed German quality materials and craftsmanship
German Pavilion at the Barcelona International Exposition (1929)
aka “The Barcelona Pavilion”: landmark building in Modernism
- Structure and enclosure systems independent but both are ordered by
orthagonal geometry
“The Barcelona Pavilion”
by Mies Van der Rohe
Barcelona Chairs designed by Mies
- Reconstruction exists in Barcelona today
“The Barcelona Pavilion”
by Mies Van der Rohe
Who? “The Barcelona Pavilion”
Mies Van der Rohe
Extension of Barcelona Pavilion ideas
Tugendhat House
by Mies Van der Rohe
Open plan with hybrid structure of walls and freestanding columns
Tugendhat House
by Mies Van der Rohe
- Transparent envelope unites interior and exterior
Tugendhat House
by Mies Van der Rohe
Tugendhat House
-Who?
-Where?
Mies Van der Rohe
Brno, Czech Republic (1930)
Deutscher Werkbund project w/ Mies as director and master planner
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
Included 33 new housing buildings by 16 leading Modernist architects
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
Mies designed 4 story apartment block that anchors the exhibit
- Gropius designs two SF houses using pre-fabricated components
- Le Corbusier designs a SF house (concrete) and a duplex (steel frame)
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
Architects included Peter Behrens, Hans Poelzig, Bruno Taut, J.J.P.
Oud and others
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
Rational and functional design dominates architecture
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
horizontal strip windows, industrial
pipe railings, flat roofs, open plans, consistent use of white surfaces,= aesthetic of Modernism
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
Political backlash from conservatives and Nazi regime: buildings seen
as foreign to German tradition, caricatured as Arab buildings (racism)
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
The Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart
-Who was in charge?
Deutscher Werkbund project w/ Mies as director and master planner
Raised in rural Wisconsin w/ little formal professional education
Frank Lloyd Wright
Worked for Louis Sullivan
Frank Lloyd Wright
Built his own house and studio in Oak Park
Frank Lloyd Wright
Fired for “moonlighting”: designing houses on his own in Oak Park
Frank Lloyd Wright
Developed Prairie Style stressing horizontality & spatial flow
Frank Lloyd Wright
Use of “organic ornament” derived from Sullivan
Frank Lloyd Wright
for Adler and Sullivan office
Charnley House, Chicago
by FLWright
- Compact form with central hearth
Winslow House, River Forrest
by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Strong horizontal emphasis on exterior
Winslow House, River Forrest
by Frank Lloyd Wright
FLW first independent commission
Winslow House, River Forrest
by Frank Lloyd Wright
new spatial openness in public areas
Willits House, Highland Park
by Frank Lloyd Wright
Extended cruciform plan w/ extended arms
Willits House, Highland Park
by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Designed interior furnishings, fixtures, lights, & clothes)
Robie House, Chicago
by Frank Lloyd Wright
Extended cantilever roofs reinforce space and horizontality
Robie House, Chicago
by Frank Lloyd Wright
celebrated “Prairie House Style”
Robie House, Chicago
by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Interior skylite atrium for clerical workforce
Larkin Building, Buffalo
by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Recreation facilities on roof
Larkin Building, Buffalo
by Frank Lloyd Wright
Designed furnishings (filing cabinets designed into partitions)
Larkin Building, Buffalo
by Frank Lloyd Wright
Mechanical ventilation very innovative
Larkin Building, Buffalo
-Frank lloyd Wright
FLW-vertical tower office building
Larkin Building, Buffalo
by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Reinforced concrete construction expressed on exterior
Unity Temple, Oak Park
by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Inward focus to avoid exterior noise…extraordinary use of light
Unity Temple, Oak Park
by Frank Lloyd Wright
FLW-Unitarian-Universalist church
Unity Temple, Oak Park
by Frank Lloyd Wright
In 1909 _____ abandoned family and went to Europe with client’s wife
Frank Lloyd Wright
- Established FLW’s reputation and influence in Europe
- Influence in USA less significant & focused on personal life
The Wasmuth Portfolios
(1910 & 1911)
published in Berlin
- Innovative “floating structure”
- Survived the Great Earthquake of 1923
The Imperial Hotel, Tokyo, Japan
by Frank Lloyd Wright
Taliesin East, Spring Green, Wisconsin (begun 1925)
Who?
Frank Lloyd Wright
- Ecclecticism
---when?
Late 19th Century
- Richard Morris Hunt and H.H. Richardson
---when?
Late 19th Century
McKim, Mead and White: the Shingle Style & Academic Classicism
---when?
Late 19th Century
The Chicago School
---when?
Late 19th Century
World’s Columbian Exhibition, Chicago (1893) “The White City”
---when?
Late 19th Century
Daniel Burnham: The Fuller (“Flat Iron”) Building, NYC (1902)
---when?
Late 19th Century
- First Church of Christian Scientists, Berkeley (1910-12)
---who?
Bernard Maybeck
- Panama-Pacific Exposition Rotunda aka Palace of Fine Arts (1914)
---who?
Bernard Maybeck
- Gamble House, Pasadena (1908-09)
---who?
Greene & Greene
Dodge House, Los Angeles
---who?
Irving Gill
Woolworth Building, NYC (1913) “Woolworth Gothic”
Cass Gilbert
- Nebraska State Capitol, Lincoln
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue
Won by Raymond Hood with Gothic Skyscrapper
The Chicago Tribune Building Competition (1922)
- $100,000 prize drew many international entries: Walter Gropius
(International Style Tower), Adolph Loos (giant classical column),
Eliel Saarinen (2nd prize), many others
The Chicago Tribune Building Competition (1922)
- The Craftsman Bungalow Style
Vernacular Traditions
- California Mission Style
Vernacular Traditions
- Mediterranean Revival (Florida)
Vernacular Traditions
Design idiom for decorative arts, graphics, furniture, & architecture
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
Many variations: l’art Moderne and Streamline Art Deco are examples
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
Eclectic inspiration from Cubist art to ancient civilizations
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
Decorative motifs using geometry and abstraction of natural forms
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
Use of stylized, idealized, heroic human figures in sculpture & murals
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
Streamline ________ reflects movement, ships and mechanization
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
replaced historicism in highrise buildings in USA
Art Deco (began 1910 in Europe, lasted thru 1940s in USA)
Clash with Modern reductivist, mass-production aesthetic (Corbusier)
Exposition des Arts Decoratifs, Paris (1925)
Chrysler Building, NYC
---who?
William Van Alen
Rockefeller Center, NYC
---who?
---style?
Reinhard & Hoffmeister, Hood,
Corbett, Fouiloux, and others

Art Deco
Empire State Building, NYC
Shreve, Lamb & Harmon
Publication of The International Style: Architecture Since 1922
---who?
by Henry Russell Hitchcock & Philip Johnson
Exhibit of Modern Architecture
Museum of Modern Art, NYC
Museum of Modern Art, NYC
---who?
Edward Durrell Stone & Philip Goodwin architects
Austrian architect émigré to USA
Rudolph Schindler (1887-1953
Influenced by Otto Wagner in Vienna
Rudolph Schindler (1887-1953
Worked for Frank Lloyd Wright
Rudolph Schindler (1887-1953
relocated to Los Angeles
Rudolph Schindler (1887-1953
Lovell Beach House (1926)
---who?
Rudolph Schindler (1887-1953
Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building, Philadelphia
--who?
William Lescaze & George Howe architects
Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building, Philadelphia
=-what?
First International Style skyscraper
- Inluenced by Adolph Loos and Otto Wagner in Vienna
Richard Neutra (1892-) Austrian architect émigré to USA
Associated with Erich Mendelsohn (1922)
Richard Neutra (1892-) Austrian architect émigré to USA
Emigrated to USA 1923 & worked for FLW & Holabird & Roche
Richard Neutra (1892-) Austrian architect émigré to USA
Relocated to Los Angeles 1926 & worked for Rudolph Schindler
Richard Neutra (1892-) Austrian architect émigré to USA
Lovell House, Los Angeles (1927-29)
---who?
Richard Neutra (1892-) Austrian architect émigré to USA
International Style desert houses (1940s and 50s)
Richard Neutra (1892-) Austrian architect émigré to USA
Influence of AEG Turbine Factory by Behrens (1909)
Fagus Shoe-Last Factory, Alfeld-an-der-Leine (1911)
by Walter Gropius
Glass curtain wall w/ exposed steel structure and flat roof = prototype
of the “International Style”
Fagus Shoe-Last Factory, Alfeld-an-der-Leine (1911)
by Walter Gropius
Trained at the Helsinki Polytechnic Institute
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Early work influenced by Deutscher Werkbund (International Style)
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
adds functional expression to Finnish architecture
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Response to site context (contours and orientation) significant
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Celebration of natural light (Finland experiences dark winters)
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
- Careful attention to functional detail…buildings very humane
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Use of local materials (wood the vernacular tradition in Finland)
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Design of furniture and furnishings (famous for bent wood chairs)
(03) Municipal Library, Viipuri (1927, built 1930-35)
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Classical and modern
Municipal Library,Viipuri
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
- International Style…international recognition
Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Paimio (1929-33)
aalto
- Romantic assemblage of basic geometries
Cellulose Factory, Sunila (1936-39)
--aalto
- Curving form along Charles River provides views up and down river
Baker House at MIT, Cambridge, Mass. (1947-49)
Aalto
- Fusion of building and landscape
Town Hall, Saynatsalo (1951-52)
- Form and light
Finland Technical University Otaniemi, Helsinki (1962-64)
by Alvaro Aalto
- Light
-Church of the Three Crosses, Imatra (1957-59)
-Chiesa di Riola, Riola, Italy near Bologna (1966-78)
-Library, Mount Angel Seminary, Oregon

-alvar aalto
Town Hall, Saynatsalo
---who?
Alvar Aalto-European Regionalism
Baker House at MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
Alvar Aalto-European Regionalism
Romanticism linked to vernacular traditions
Early 20th Century in Finland
Nordic version of stripped down Neo-Classicisim
Early 20th Century in Finland
Seeking to develop a national (regional) identity for Finland
Early 20th Century in Finland
Polemics and propaganda
Vers una architecture
Industrial mass production and quality design
The Birth of Modernism and the “War of Words
Utopian values rooted in rationality, economy and function
The Birth of Modernism and the “War of Words
Visceral dislike of cultural historicism (carnage of WW I) fosters a
rejection of “ornament” and cultural traditions in architecture
The Birth of Modernism and the “War of Words
Vienna R.R. stations & Postal Savings Bank
---who?
---style?
Otto Wagner
The Vienna Secession Movement (a branch of Art Nouveau))
The Secession Hall, Vienna (1898-99)
---who?
---style?
Josef Maria Olbrich
The Vienna Secession Movement (a branch of Art Nouveau))
Worked & traveled in USA (1893-96) exposed to Chicago School
Adolf Loos (1870-1933) Austria
Ornament and Crime (1908) ornament is primitive and degenerate
Adolf Loos (1870-1933) Austria
The “Raumplan”: spatial composition open, rich material pallete
Adolf Loos (1870-1933) Austria
Steiner House (1910) Vienna
---who?
---style?
Adolf Loos (1870-1933) Austria
possibly modernism
Michaelplatz Store,
---who?
---style?
Adolf Loos (1870-1933) Austria
possibly modernism
Wedding Tower (1905-08)
---who?
---style?
Olbrich
possibly modernism
Housing @ Artist’s Colony at Darmstadt, Germany (Grand Duke of Hesse)
---who?(2)
Olbrich (1900) and Peter Behrens (1901)
- Office trained many modernist: Gropius, Meyer, Corbusier, Mies
Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
- AEG Turbine Factory, Berlin (1909)
---who?
Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
- Head of Design for graphics, products and buildings (1907-)
Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
- AEG, General Electric Company, Berlin
---who was in charge?
Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
“German Products Association”
The Deutscher Werkbund
The Deutscher Werkbund “German Products Association”
---who starts?
Herman Muthesius: 1896 studied English design & manufacturing
1907--founded to promote German manufacturing quality - Aesthetic and manufacturing quality necessary
The Deutscher Werkbund “German Products Association”
Model Factory @ Werkbund Exposition 1914, Cologne, Germany
---who?
Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer
Machine Hall @ Werkbund Exposition 1914, Cologne, Germany
---who?
Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer
Austrian Pavilion @ Werkbund Exposition 1914, Cologne, Germany
---who?
Josef Hoffman
Theater @ Werkbund Exposition 1914, Cologne, Germany
---who?
Henri van der Velde
Glass Pavilion @ Werkbund Exposition 1914, Cologne, Germany
---who?
Bruno Taut
Goetheanum (1928), Utopian Community, Dornach
---who?
Rudolf Steiner:
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS: EARLY MODERN MOVEMENTS
Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1920-21)
---who?
Erich Mendelsohn
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS: EARLY MODERN MOVEMENTS
Water Tower at Posen
---who?
Hans Polzeig
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS: EARLY MODERN MOVEMENTS
- “Truth alone is beautiful”.
Tony Garnier (1869-1948)
- Began to reject classical design as an historical “error
Tony Garnier (1869-1948)
Won Grand Prix de Rome prize (1899) at the Ecole de Beaux Arts
Tony Garnier (1869-1948)
Functional city planning with zoning of activities in orderly grids
La Citte’ Industrielle (The Industrial City) published 1917
- - Unadorned concrete construction of SF detached residences
La Citte’ Industrielle (The Industrial City) published 1917
- Light, air, ventilation, greenspace = healthy environment
La Citte’ Industrielle (The Industrial City) published 1917
-by tony garnier
- Envelope varied for local context
Dom-ino House System (1914)
- Concrete slab and column and stair infrastructure
Dom-ino House System (1914)
House as affordable as a Citroen car
Citrohan House (1922)
- Reinforced concrete elevated above the ground on piers (pilotis)
Citrohan House (1922)
Citrohan House (1922)
---who?
Le Corbusier
Villa Savoye (1929-31) Poissy outside Paris
Le Corbusier
Swiss Pavilion Maison Suisse (1928) Paris
---who?
---what?
Le Corbusier
Cite’ Universitaire: dormitory for Swiss students
Beauty of simple functional industrial buildings and machines
Vers une architecture
House is a machine for living
Vers une architecture
- Born and attended art school in Swiss town of La Chaux-de-Fonds
LE CORBUSIER
- Advocated functional design based on machine aesthetics
LE CORBUSIER
- Advocated regulating lines & the “Golden Section” proportions
LE CORBUSIER
- Always and artist and an architect
LE CORBUSIER
- Founded magazine L’Esprit nouveau (The New Spirit) in 1920
LE CORBUSIER
- Moved to Paris in 1916 and adopted pseudonym Le Corbusier
LE CORBUSIER
- First architectural designs in Swiss home area
LE CORBUSIER
- Architectural education: Auguste Perret (concrete) & Peter Behrens
LE CORBUSIER
LE CORBUSIER-what was his real name?
Charles Edouard Jeanneret