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65 Cards in this Set

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Give five functions of the skeleton.
Support
Movement
Protection
Storage
Red blood cell production
epiphysis
The end of a long bone. Epiphyses (plural)
diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone.
Diaphyses (plural)
cancellous or spongy bone
Porous bone forming trabeculae in the epiphysis. Responsible for making red bone marrow in some bones.
compact bone
Dense bone of the diaphysis. Arranged in Haversian systems
articular cartilage
Smooth connective tissue that covers the epiphyses.
medullary (yellow bone marrow) cavity
A cavity in the diaphysis of a long bone. Site for storage of fat in the form of yellow bone.
periosteum
Fibrous, tough outer covering of a bone. Does not cover the articulating surfaces of epiphyses.
endosteum
Membrane that lines the marrow cavity of a long bone and the trabeculae of spongy bone.
trabeculae
Thin, criss-crossing bony plates of spongy bone.
Haversian system
Basic structural unit of compact bone. Collections of concentric layers of hard matrix containing bone cells and surrounding a central Haversian canal.
Haversian canal
Circular channel running the length of a Haversian system. Contains at least one blood vessel and may also contain nerves and lymph vessels.
lamellae (lamella - singular)
Concentric layers of bony matrix surrounding a Haversian canal.
lacunae (lacuna - singular)
Spaces in the matrix between lamellae where osteocytes are located.
osteocyte
A bone cell.
canaliculi (canaliculus - singular)
Tiny canals between osteocytes joining lacuae. Allows for the exchange of materials between adjacent osteocytes.
axial skeleton
The part of the skeleton that lies around the central axis of the body. Consists of bones of the skull, vertebral column and ribcage.
skull
Consists of bones that form the cranium and face.
cranium
Fused bones that enclose the brain and the organs of sight, hearing and balance.
foramen magnum
The opening beneath the cranium through which the spinal cord passes.
maxilla
Bone forming the upper jaw, anterior roof of the mouth, lateral walls of the nasal cavity and the base of the eye sockets. House the teeth of the upper jaw.
mandible
Bone forming the lower jaw. Houses the teeth of the lower jaw. Strongest bone of the face and is joined by the only movable joint in the skull.
vertebral column
A series of 33 vertebrae forming the spine or backbone.
vertebrae (vertebra - singular)
Bones of the vertebral column.
cervical vertebrae
The first 7 vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck region. (C1-C2)
atlas and axis
First two cervical vertebrae. Atlas (C1) supports the weight of the skull and Axis (C2) articulates with C1 and C3. The joint between atlas and axis allows the skull to pivot on top the vertebral column.
thoracic vertebrae
The 12 vertebrae of the thorax. Each articulates posteriorly with a rib and anteriorly with cartilage of the sternum (most).
lumbar vertebrae
The five large wedge-shaped vertebrae of the lower back.
sacrum
A single bone formed by 5 fused vertebrae. Forms the back of the pelvis where the two hip bones join.
coccyx
A single bone of 4 fused vertebrae at the end of the vertebral column.
centrum
Thick, disc-shaped, weight-bearing body of the vertebra.
neural arch
Arch formed by the vertebral processes, enclosing the vertebral foramen.
vertebral foramen
Opening through which the spinal cord passes.
transverse process
Bony projections extending to the sides of the neural arch
spinous process
Bony projection extending to the back of the neural arch.
intervertebral disc
Pads of fibrocartilage inbetween vertebra acting as shock absorbers and contributing to the flexibility of the vertebral column.
ribcage
Protective structure of the thorax formed from 12 pairs of ribs attached to the sternum and thoracic vertebrae. Responsible for protecting the vital thoracic organs and insisting in breathing.
sternum
Also called the breastbone, is an elongated flat bone that serves as a region for the attachment of ribs and some abdominal muscles.
costal cartilage
Cartilage that attaches the true ribs to the sternum.
true ribs
7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by their own branch of costal cartilage.
false ribs
5 pairs of ribs that do not attach directly to the sternum by their own branch of costal cartilage. (2 of these pairs are floating ribs)
floating ribs
Last 2 pairs of ribs that are not attached to the sternum at all.
appendicular skeleton
The part of the skeleton that is made up of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the bones of the shoulder and pelvis.
pectoral girdle
Bones that make up the shoulder and form attachment for the upper limb.
scapula
Also called the shoulder blade. Flat triangular bone at the rear of the ribcage. Together with the clavicle form the socket into which the humerus articulates.
clavicle
Also called the collar bone. Long, slender curved bone. Major bone of the pectoral girdle, providing the only attachment of the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
humerus
Longest and largest bone of the upper limb.
ulna
One of the bones of the forearm. Articulates with the humerus at the elbow. In anatomical position it is situated on the little finger side of the hand. It is largest at the elbow and narrower at the wrist.
radius
One of the bones of the forearm. Articulates with the ulna to allow rotation of the forearm. In anatomical position it is situated on the thumb side of the hand. It is narrow at the elbow and widest at the wrist.
carpals
8 small bones of the wrist.
metacarpals
5 small long bones of the hand.
phalanges
28 finger and toe bones. There are 3 bones in each finger/toe, but only 2 bones in each thumb/big toe.
pelvic girdle
Bones of the pelvis, providing support for the weight of the body and the abdominal organs and creates a deep socket for the attachment of the femur.
acetabulum
Deep socket of the hip bone allowing articulation with the femur.
ilium
Large, flared bones of the pelvis.
ischium
Bones forming the base of the pelvis.
pubis
Bones forming the front of the pelvis.
symphysis pubis
Cartilaginous joint between the two pubis bones.
femur
Longest and strongest bone of the body. Situated in the upper leg.
tibia
Also called the shin bone. The larger of the 2 bones of the lower leg.
fibula
Slender bone of the lower leg.
tarsals
7 small bones of the ankle.
metatarsals
5 small long bones of the foot.
calcaneus
Also called the heel bone. Largest weight-bearing tarsal bone.
talus
Large tarsal bone that articulates with the fibula at the ankle.